Florist calendar for October
The middle month of autumn scares almost every gardener for a reason. When the most colorful time transforms landscapes, literally wrapping a panorama in fiery colors, and colorful leaves softly rustling underfoot, one of the most difficult periods of gardening begins. In October, nothing can be overlooked, because there is no other chance to prepare plants and soil for winter, plant the last planned crops and carry out all organizational work. And the vagaries of the weather do not facilitate the tasks facing the summer resident. And against the backdrop of the last flashes of flowering, one will have to work tirelessly so that next year flower beds, flowers, lawns and ponds will be even more beautiful.
Fight against a luxurious leaflet
Falling leaves - a truly spectacular sight. They cover the soil and paths with a carpet of fire, hiding the already beginning wilting and unattractive glades and allowing you to admire the most colorful landscapes of autumn. But on the site, the leaves are not only beautiful scenery, but also a source of labor-intensive work.
While the last perennials and the most persistent of the summers still continue to please with either touching or colorful blooms, most of the plants in October actively dump foliage. It forms a thick carpet, which not only interferes with the access of air to the soil, but also creates the conditions for browning, rotting, rotting of stems and the active spread of pests and fungal diseases. And where you are actively moving, it can cause injuries in bad weather.
In time to collect leaves in the garden is very important. Of course, the foliage layer is far from harmful everywhere, but it must be removed without fail:
- at reservoirs and streams (and especially with a smooth surface);
- from lawns and clearings with ground cover plants;
- on paths, trails and all areas in the garden (soft and hard).
From flower beds, decorative wood and shrubs, leaves are removed according to completely different rules. The deciduous shelter created by nature itself is necessarily removed. It is necessary to remove a layer of fallen leaves even for the most persistent large plants - solitary shrubs. And the less leaves the plants will have, the better. Own foliage of ornamental plants can become a breeding ground for diseases and pests, and not all cultures need it.
Those moody perennials and shrubs who need good air circulation and who are prone to powdery mildew and other diseases, fallen leaves are useless. And for those decorative-deciduous and cultivated plants that love mulching with leaves, they create it manually, selectively, taking into account the requirements of each individual plant.
Hard mulching must be correct. Such a shelter will be useful only when the foliage itself is dry and healthy (it can be collected only under healthy plants, in dry weather). The same foliage is suitable for wrapping as for composting. In no case do not use oak and walnut leaves for mulching, and pour conifer needles only near those plants that love high acidity.
Harvesting leaves is a laborious task. And the right choice of mechanical assistants will be the key not only to success, but also to minimize the effort. For large areas you can buy special garden vacuum cleaners, but even in the smallest garden you will need high-quality and lightweight rake with an ergonomic handle and separate rake for lawns - light, not harmful to turfs.
Final season weeding and digging
Despite the fact that weeds have long stopped the rapid development and spread of the garden, it is very important to fight them in this month. The amount of garden work next year will depend on how diligent you will be in October.
Be sure to spend the last, final season weeding on all flowerbeds, discounts, in decorative groups - even those that seem to have nothing to weed this month. Gently pulling out the rhizome residues, removing old weeds and putting the soil in order will take away strength. But you will fully appreciate the work done in the spring, when it will be much easier to cope with active young weeds than usual.
In addition to the last weeding of all compositions, carry out additional cleaning in areas with exposed soil that have been excavated in previous months. Areas of soil ready for planting in spring or pending perennial planting at least inspect and be sure to remove the remains of weeds. At the last weeding, be careful: do not confuse young shoots of ornamental plants that propagate by self-sowing, for example, lupine, poppy and calendula, with weeds.
In the same place where the soil is still idle and just waiting for your care, do not pull with a dig. Remember that work not done in the fall will be three times harder in the spring. Remove all plant debris from the soil and select weeds, then be sure to dig the soil to a depth of one bayonet bayonet. Just do not rush to fluff and aerate: in October, the soil needs only to be turned over without breaking the breast. Frost and snow themselves will provide a light and loose texture. But the fluffy soil is likely to compact and compact under the snow cover, because it will not have time to "settle" before the frost. So do not rush to do the extra work: in October, the garden needs a simple digging, not aeration.
Final preparation of perennials on flower beds and discounts
Perennials by the end of October should be prepared for winter. Perennials that have completed flowering and do not need stronger protection than winter mulching, regardless of their status, size and timing of flowering, need to be put in order. Remove dry foliage and damaged, dead shoots. Not all plants will need a full cut. For peonies and phloxes, cut under the root, but carnations, nyvyaniks, geyhera just need to remove peduncles and dry foliage.
Ornamental cereals, marshmallow, dried flowers and evergreen crops are not trimmed at all: these are the main characters in the cold season. But in other cultures, if you noticed beautiful seeds and panicles, do not rush to cut the shoots: perhaps they should be left to decorate the winter garden. So, under the snow caps look yarrow shields, dry "cones" of Echinacea, lush hydrangea hats. But remember that any pruning rules do not apply to infected plants: they need to undergo a pruning pruning in October, because infected shoots, foliage or flower stalks can become problems for the entire flower garden.
After cleaning, take care of the protection for the winter:
- Be sure to mulch the bulbous plantings made this year.
- Create a protective layer of mulch from plant materials around plants that are not afraid of frost, but do not react too well to snowless periods.
- Prepare materials in advance for sheltering roses and other perennials that need more protection for the winter. If October surprises with early frosts, you will be ready to urgently cover the plants. Do not forget to take off early shelters during the day and air the sods and bushes.
Caring for herbs on flower beds
Mint, lemon balm, monarda, basil, catnip, thyme, thyme have long changed the status of garden "grass" to the title of universal decorative culture. Today they are often grown on flower beds and in discounts, where they flaunt with unique textures and durability than on classic beds. In October, all spicy plants that grow in decorative compositions should be given a few hours.
Thyme, rhubarb, lemon balm, tarragon, monard should be cut off this month and prepared for wintering. Cut the shoots low, at the level of 5-15 cm. After trimming, be sure to mulch the soil, first creating small swelling mounds around the bushes, and then covering the entire soil under the plantings with humus or compost with a standard five-centimeter layer. Such protection will allow overwintering even the most capricious varietal thyme.
If you want to enjoy your favorite spicy herbs all winter, but it is in October that you can transfer part of the plants to a pot culture. Gradual adaptation to new conditions will allow you to successfully use greens to decorate window sills. For this, it is only necessary:
- Dig up small bushes or split large sods.
- In prepared clean pots, freed from the pilots to land the delenki, using a thick layer of drainage and a quality substrate.
- Maintain light soil moisture and begin non-concentrated dressing, leaving the plants in the garden to get used to growing in containers until the cold snap.
- Move the pots to a cool, bright room to gradually adapt to room conditions for several days.
- Put pots of herbs on the windowsill and take care of them like ordinary indoor plants. Remember that spicy herbs transferred from the garden will need the brightest place in the house.
Woody and shrubs in October
In October, do not do any work with shrubs and trees on flower beds and in works (except for collecting fallen leaves). This month it is undesirable even to renew the mulch under them or to create a new protective layer on the soil. The only exception is conifers. During the first decade of October, for all conifers in decorative compositions, potash fertilizers should be applied to the soil.
Replenishing the collection of ornamental shrubs and trees in October is not a bad idea at all. This month, you can plant not only fruit trees in the soil, but also various shrubs with beautiful foliage or original varieties of purely decorative trees. True, there is one “but”: landing can only be carried out in previously prepared pits. Strictly adhere to the rules of planting for each particular species, and after planting, do not forget to water the plants abundantly several times. In October, you can still replenish the collection of large tubular and woody plants with winter-hardy species.
If living fences from hornbeam, maple, beech in your area in a neglected state or the plants developed so actively that the fence looks messy, then in the first decade of October you can still carry out a light pruning. Both landscape and sheared hedges from these plants will tolerate pruning of thin young branches if you do not touch the skeletal shoots.
Do not forget about the late and not only roses
If the weather is favorable, roses of later varieties will decorate the garden with luxurious inflorescences even in October. Of course, the foliage of even the most persistent specimens will not please the eye, but here the inflorescences against the backdrop of wilting nature and golden autumn will seem even more luxurious. And late roses need to be given increased attention. True, work with the garden queen is limited by the requirement to avoid any pruning:
- be sure to remove the fading inflorescences from the bushes, but in no case with scissors or secateurs, but gently plucking and breaking out twigs;
- remove dry leaves from under the bushes;
- completely remove dry or damaged branches immediately.
Pay attention to all other roses that have already bloomed: pick up the fallen leaves and in advance, before the final pruning, which will come later, cut the dry and damaged shoots.
We remove gladioli and dahlias
As soon as the garden for the first time is shackled by small night frosts, and the temperature drops at least one degree below zero, remove the last bulbous and corm onion from the garden. Gladiolus, begonia, dahlia, crocosmia, haltonia and other autumn-flowering plants should be removed from the soil in October. After digging, cut the shoots, gently peel the corms and bulbs from the soil and dry for 2-3 days in a well-ventilated place. Only then remove the seedling material for storage, being guided by the preferences of each plant.
Dig gladioli in warm weather, in the same order in which they bloomed - from early varieties to late specimens.
Dahlias also prefer digging on sunny days with the first weak frosts. But if it’s easy to dig out gladioli, then you need to be careful with dahlias. The fleshy root tubers in this period are ultra-fragile, and they should not even be pulled slightly by the stems during the extraction of their soil, and even more so with rough handling of the dug rhizomes.
Landing on flower beds and in discounts can still be carried out
October is perceived by many as the ending of the garden season. But this month, not only does the colorful garden show not stop, but the planting of new plants in decorative compositions should continue. Moreover, among garden crops there are unique beauties who prefer late planting - hyacinths and lilies of the valley.
October is ideal for planting hyacinths. The thing is that these bulbs quickly and actively root only if the soil temperature does not exceed 9 degrees. At the same time, they outgrow in heat and may not withstand negative temperatures at all. They cannot be planted at the same time as crocuses with tulips, but as soon as the autumn colds come and the average temperature approaches 6-10 degrees, it's time to plant the bulbous aristocrats at the most advantageous locations in the foreground of the flower beds. Of course, hyacinths will need the brightest lighting.
Lilies of the valley prefer no less late landing - from the second decade of October. Of course, they need completely different conditions, partial shade and shadow, but the main specificity concerns the landing process itself. If you want these delightful plants to quickly fill the soil and create delightful glades of large leaves, bloom en masse, then plant lilies of the valley in deep holes (such that the roots do not bend or twist during planting), and the growth points are lowered compared to the line soil 1-2 cm.
Many garden perennials, summers and biennials love pre-winter sowing no less than growing through seedlings. Natural stratification allows not only to achieve earlier seedlings, but also eliminates the need to independently stimulate germination. Saving time in the spring is also an important plus. Winter sowing is carried out in the third decade of October, but specific dates should be determined by the vagaries of the weather. Sowing can only be done after a stable cold snap or even the first freezing of the soil.
Forget-me-nots, lupins, lavender, poppies, most cereals, decorative flax, digitalis, dolphinium are just a few of the decorative cultures that prefer winter planting. From annuals, asters, gypsophila, alissum, lavater, nigella, godetsia, cornflowers, Iberis, cosmea, adonis, matthiola, poppy, eschscholtius and calendula can be sown at the end of the month. And from perennials, primroses, hellebores, cyclamens, gentians, aquilegia, peach leaf and Carpathian bells, nyvyanik, doronicum, lichenis, gaillardia, small petals, shaving and cloves also prefer cold stratification.
After sowing, immediately mulch the soil on the beds using peat or compost, and then cover the crops with dry leaves (and, if possible, with spruce branches).
Lawn preparation for winter
At the very beginning of the month, without delaying even by the second decade, carry out the final preparation of lawn areas for a long winter.If the lawn didn’t have time to grow, don’t cut it, but if you were late with pruning in September and you need a haircut in the clearing, spend the last mowing at the very beginning of October. In no case do not mow lawns lower than 5 cm high. But if mowing is far from an obligatory point, then you need to take care of the cleanliness of the lawn and its health in any situation.
In early October, be sure to remove moss colonies, debris and leaves from the lawn. After cleaning, prick the turf with a special tool and comb it again with a rake, achieving perfect purity of the turf before winter. Cover bald spots or dry patches that you did not manage to restore in September in October by the emergency method: remove the remains of the old dry turf, sow and immediately mulch the soil on the bald spot with sand. Fertilizing the entire lawn is strictly forbidden, but it is better to “back up” such affected areas during preparation for winter with a portion of autumn fertilizers.
Pot Garden in October
In the most troublesome month of autumn, you need to constantly monitor the collection of potted and potted. Oleander, geraniums, fuchsias, dope tree-like this month can still be used for cutting cuttings. If the weather was warm and the thermophilic plants still remained in the garden, they should be removed to the premises as soon as the temperature drops below 10 degrees Celsius. Citrus fruits, palm trees, fuchsia do not tolerate severe cooling. With the forecast of the first nocturnal frosts, it is worth taking away the remaining non-resistant plants, all indoor crops remaining in the garden.
The only plants that can withstand the first frosts are species, and in nature growing in harsh climates, frost-resistant tubas, chrysanthemums, cereals, ivies and conifers. For them, you need to prepare a shelter (pots should be wrapped during the first frosts, protected with mats and non-woven materials), put them in groups and secured against overturning in bad weather, as well as adjust care by making watering minimal, draining water from pallets and completely stop feeding.
In October, winter-green potted plants and traditional late-autumn decorations for balconies - dahlias, gladioli, chrysanthemums, sages, ivy, stonecrops, heathers, fescue and other cereals can be put in place of the plants that were taken away or thrown away. They will look charming on the terrace or in the gazebo, in the decor of your favorite relaxation area.
Do not forget to immediately clean, rinse and dry the pots that are released from the last summer. They need to be put in order and put into storage until frost.