Spring treatment of the orchard from pests
The day lengthens, the sun is getting warmer. Spring is coming - the time for the most intensive work in the garden. People say: “You won’t have time in the spring, you won’t dig in the winter. And this is true. The spring work of gardening agriculture begins. And, perhaps, the main spring work in the garden is the implementation of preventive measures aimed at preventing the appearance of pests of fruit crops. In this article we will tell you exactly what you need to do in the garden in the spring so that no pests of fruit trees prevent you from picking a good crop in the fall.
- Spring agricultural activities
- Processing trunks and skeletal branches of fruit crops
- Brief description of pests
- Fruit pest control methods
- Pest Control
- Pest Control
- Folk remedies for pests
Spring agricultural activities
We begin spring agricultural activities in the garden with preparations for processing fruit crops from diseases and pests:
- We remove heaters on young seedlings and process them from possible pests. Sushim. Fold in a dry place until autumn.
- On fruit-bearing crops, remove hunting belts and burn them.
- When a stable temperature of -5 ..- 7ºС occurs, we trim the crown, clean the trunk and skeletal branches of the old lagging bark, which served as “winter apartments” for pests. We cut the saw cuts and cuts with var, special compounds or simply disinfect 5% with copper sulphate and paint over with oil paint.
- The April sun is fierce. You need to hide the boles and skeletal tree branches from it, put whitewash and paint on the spring outfit, and at the same time destroy some of the pests.
- Adult pests (weevils, fruit sawflies) can simply be shaken off a tree. The technology of this procedure is simple, but up to 60-80% of pests that have wintered in adult form will be destroyed. The procedure should be carried out at a temperature no higher than + 7 ... + 8ºС, early in the morning in cloudy weather, so that the bugs numb from the cold do not fly away. Remove all sticking weeds under the crown. Spread the film evenly. Shake the branches with a long pole. Wintered pests will sprinkle from the crown of the tree. It remains to gently roll the film with the bugs to take out and burn the pests.
Processing trunks and skeletal branches of fruit crops
Before processing the wood, lay a film under it. Once again inspect the trunk and large branches, remove the remnants of the old bark, clean the cracks, repair the hollows and wounds. The film is needed to protect the soil from pests and re-infection of plants.
The chemical industry offers ready-made compounds for whitewashing and even painting the trunks and main shoots of adult plants. The most popular dye for whitewashing is acrylic paint. On sale there are water-emulsion and water-dispersion dyes marked "for garden trees." They stay for a long time on the bark of trees, do not wash off by rains. Dyes contain an antiseptic, so no additional pesticides need to be added to the solution. Sometimes, if the composition is liquid, PVA glue is added to it. With a dense consistency glue is not needed. If it is impossible to buy a ready-made whitewash solution, you can prepare it yourself.
Self-preparation of whitewash solutions
For young seedlings, the solution is prepared on a water-based emulsion or chalk base. Lime can burn the tender bark of seedlings. BI-58 and copper sulfate are added to the solution as disinfectants. You can use other disinfectants. Glue, especially carpentry, cannot be used. It clogs the pores in the young cortex, as a result of which gas exchange decreases, the trunks thicken more slowly (remain weak to maintain the crown).
Tip. To protect the young bark of seedlings from sunburn, always install a support stake on the south side of the trunk. There will be additional shadow protection.
In the garden, do not stop at one whitewash per year. Whitening should be repeated as you rinse.
For fruiting trees, the following mixtures are prepared, which process the trunk and all skeletal branches. Solutions are prepared on freshly slaked lime. She burns the eggs of many pests laid since autumn.
Dilute the slaked lime to a thick sour cream. For better adhesion to the bucket of the solution, add 1-2 handfuls of clay, clerical glue (some gardeners use carpentry), copper sulfate, and any strongly smelling BI-58 pesticide, dichlorvos, etc.
To prepare a solution of freshly slaked lime of creamy density, add clerical glue, dissolved soap, copper sulfate, fungicide hom (30-40 g / bucket), you can use oxychrome (20 g / bucket). This composition is well used in gardens affected by fungal diseases, mosses and lichens.
In regions where nitrofen is allowed, you can add 200 g of the drug to a bucket of whitewash. It is effective against hibernating winter pest eggs.
Each gardener can use their own recipe for whitewash. The above formulations are examples for beginners.
Whitewashing is completed by installing hunting belts from a straw bundle on the lower part of the stem. Treat the tourniquet with any powdery chemical pesticides (DDT, etc.), grease the shaft with special anti-track garden glue and attach the hunting belt to the glue path. Animals, from the soil, including "household" ants, get stuck on the sticky path in the belt and die. During the spring, hunting belts are changed twice in 10-12 days. Old necessarily burn.
The measures taken will partially destroy the pests, but with the onset of the warm period, other sucking and gnawing representatives of the negative world of harmful insects and bugs will wake up.
Brief description of pests
According to the method of nutrition, pests of the green world can be divided into two groups:
In suckers, the oral apparatus is adapted to suck the plant sap. In this case, the normal nutrition of the culture is disrupted and with an epiphytotic lesion leads to the death of the plant. The main sucking pests of the garden are aphids, ticks, scale insects, cicadas, pennies, honeypots and others. The adults remaining from wintering for a short time, actively breeding, form huge colonies.
In the process of feeding, they secrete a sweetish liquid “honey dew”, which is a breeding ground for fungi, bacteria, viruses and ants' favorite food. Eating honey dew affected by negative diseases, they spread the disease to all visited crops.
Gnawing pests gnaw young vegetative (leaves, buds, young shoots, roots) and generative organs (flower buds, flowers, ovaries). They cause irreparable harm to the emerging crop and the tree itself. In some years, pests destroy the crop by 50-100%. Often cause the death of culture. This group of pests includes caterpillars of various butterflies, barbel, nutcrackers, weevils, etc.
Fruit pest control methods
Pest control can be carried out in several ways:
- Chemical, using pesticides.
- Biological, using biological products made on a live bacterial and fungal basis and involving natural predators eating adult pests, their eggs, larvae. These include ladybugs, riders, certain species of wasps and birds, including sparrows, scallops, titmouse, wagtails and others.
- Folk decoctions, infusions, powders of the corresponding anti-insecticidal and anti-fungicidal herbs, fruits, seeds.
General approaches to chemical pest control methods
It is sad to realize, but the most common is the chemical method of pest control. A solution prepared in 5-10 minutes, especially in a tank mixture, will relieve the garden of pests in 2-3 sprays.
When using pesticides, remember:
- all chemicals (solutions, powders) have a high degree of risk to human health, animals and beneficial insects;
- the last chemical treatment ends a month or more before harvesting;
- Considering their negative impact on health, it is better to treat trees and shrubs with a tank mixture, after checking the preparations for compatibility. Mixtures of pesticides will reduce the number of treatments and expand the list of simultaneously destroyed pests and diseases.
Starting work with a chemical preparation, especially a new one, carefully study the recommendations and act strictly on them. Increasing the dose of the drug in solution, untimely use will not give a positive effect, but will adversely affect the health status and quality of the products.
Remember! The main condition for effective protection against pests when using pesticides is the precise implementation of instructions and recommendations for their use.
When working with pesticides, always work in protective clothing that protects against pesticides. After working with drugs, take a shower and change clothes.
Chemicals against sucking pests
- Before budding, the fruit crops can be protected from pests by spraying with Nitrofen and DNOC solutions. Nitrafen can be replaced with Nisaran or Borneo, which destroy the eggs of pests, and at a later date and larvae.
- In the phase of bud swelling, before flowering and at the end of it, it is advisable to sprinkle the trees with 1% Bordeaux liquid or use a tank mixture of HOM and Fufanon.
- Of the systemic chemicals that destroy the gastrointestinal tract of poisonous juices of sucking pests such as aphids, scabies, mockworms, whitefly thrips, leaf flies, it is effective to use according to the recommendations of Actara, Confidor, Karbofos, Rovikurt, Benzophosphate. Karbofos and Actellik are successfully used against ticks, including spider mites.
- Mospilan and Prestige are dual-action drugs: systemic and contact. They successfully destroy eggs, larvae and adult pests.
- Contact action preparations (requiring repeated spraying after rains and irrigation) Arrivo, Decis, Karate, Fastak, Fury, Tsimbush, Citkor, Sherpa (approximately the same in chemical composition) effectively destroy not only sucking aphids, mushroom mosquitoes, thrips, whiteflies, but also gnawing pests.
- Thunder and Thunder-2 are successfully used against ants and a bear.
- Of the new drugs, Sunmight is recommended against ticks and whiteflies at all phases of crop development, especially on apple trees.
- Stirrap with targeted destruction of a spider mite.
Biological products against sucking pests
It is better to use biological preparations in your garden plot to get ecological products. Bioinsecticides do not affect human health. Do not harm animals and beneficial insects. They can be used for treatments before harvesting, and some (Planriz) and during harvesting.
The basis for the preparation of bioinsecticides are living beneficial fungi and bacteria (effective microflora). In the process of life in contact with a pest, a parasite is introduced into the body and destroys it.
Of the bioinsecticides, the most effective and often used are Boverin, Fitoverm, Actofit, Bitoxibacillin, Lepidocide, Bicol (see instructions). Verticillin acts especially quickly on aphids and whiteflies, while Bitoxibacillin and Bicol affect aphids and spider mites.
If sucking pests suck out plant sap, then gnawing physically destroy the generative and vegetative organs of plants. The group of gnawing pests consists of bugs, kidney beetles, flower beetles, leaf beetles, weevils, nutcrackers, barbel.
All species of codling moth damage the fruits, and butterflies, passing through the stage of gluttonous caterpillars, can destroy the green fruit outfit in a short time and significantly reduce the yield. Adult specimens of gnawing pests winter in fallen fruits, leaves, pruned branches and shoots, in hollows of trees and cracks in the bark. Here they lay eggs, from which, with the onset of heat, larvae and caterpillars hatch, devouring the green crown of trees.
Chemicals against gnawing pests
- Of the chemicals against gnawing, the same chemicals are used as for protection against sucking pests: Karbofos, Benzophosphate, Aktara, Decis, Fastak.
- Against the leaf caterpillars of the ringed silkworm, the winter moth, the moths are treated with DNOC or Nitrafen before the buds of the fruit crops open up. At the beginning of the dissolution of the kidneys, a suspension of Gardona or (for younger individuals) Eptobacterin, Dendrobacillin is used.
- To protect against flower beetles during the period from bud bloom to budding, a suspension of Phosphamide is used, and against a vitreous, a Fozalon emulsion.
- Moths and sawflies are effectively destroyed by Antio emulsion. Purposefully against the moth, you can use a suspension of Gordon, Rovikurt, Zolon.
- Against sawflies and mining moths, Trichloromethaphos is recommended.
Biological products against gnawing pests
Of the biological products against gnawing pests, the most interesting is the bio-insecticide Actofit (Akarin). The widest range of pests is effectively destroyed by Actofit without the addiction of parasitic pests to the drug. Actofit acts as a contact and intestinal bioinsecticide for most pests in almost all fruit crops. The drug quickly and effectively destroys caterpillars of scoops, moths, leafworms, moths, arthropod pests, leaf beetles and flower beetles, sawflies, mites, soil nematodes.
In practice, having only this biological product, it is possible with timely treatment to keep the garden clean from most pests. The waiting period when processing Actofit 2 days. The drug is easily washed off with water, which means that it can be eaten before 2 days. For gardeners who want to get environmentally friendly harvests of fruits, berries and vegetables, Actofit is a godsend.
Of the other drugs, Bitoxibacillin, Boverin Verticill, Dachnik, Fitoverm, Lepidocide are widely used. They effectively protect fruit crops from moths, thrips, whiteflies, codling moths, scoop, flower beetles and other pests. A wide compatibility with other biological products and chemicals makes them indispensable in the manufacture of tank mixtures. Especially convenient are biologics on multi-harvest berry-garden crops and vegetables.
Bioinsecticides combine systemic and contact effects on pests. Acting on the neurotoxin type, they cause paralysis and death of adult sucking and gnawing individuals. The duration of bioinsecticides is much shorter than chemicals, so they require more frequent treatments (after 10-15 days).
Acquisition of drugs and time spent on processing are increasing, but ... health is more expensive. The main condition for the effective use of biological products is the strict implementation of instructions and recommendations for dilution and periods of use.
Folk remedies for pests
Ways to protect fruit crops from pests by folk remedies involves the preparation of infusions, decoctions and powders of insecticide herbs and herbs with anti-fungicidal properties. It should be noted that the prepared preparations are not as harmless as it seems. They are sometimes based on such potent alkaloid compounds that by eating an unwashed apple or peach you can get severe poisoning.
Some gardeners offer decoctions of hemlock, black bleached, hogweed, aconite and other poisonous herbs. Judging by the rules of use, decoctions and infusions are the same chemicals, only of a lower concentration. Using folk tips, be careful.
Rules for the application of folk methods of pest control
- Collect the aerial part of plants (stems, leaves, inflorescences) for the preparation of solutions is necessary at the time of the beginning or full bloom, and tubers, bulbs, roots and rhizomes - in early spring or late autumn. Dry in vivo.
- Given the toxicity of some plants, it is necessary to prepare preparations (dry and liquid) from them strictly by prescription and store in places inaccessible to children and animals.
- For cooking, use special dishes that are not used for cooking.
- To bury the remains and waste from solutions in the earth. They must not be accessible to animals and birds.
- Plants are treated no more than 3 times during the growing season. In epiphytotic cases, the number of treatments is increased by 1-2 sprayings or dusting.
- Spraying and other treatments are carried out in the evening.
- Stop processing plants 20-30 days before harvesting and only completely non-toxic plants for 5-7 days. During flowering and harvesting solutions are not used.
Compositions of folk remedies
For treatment of plants from pests, several formulations can be offered:
- To protect against spider mites, aphids, spraying with a decoction of healthy tops of potatoes and tomatoes works well.
- Against aphids, honeypots, and spider mites, a solution of wood ash with laundry soap can be prepared in hot water.
- Onion husk infusion is effective against caterpillars, aphids, spider mites.
- Tobacco dust or shag pour hot water. The daily infusion with the addition of soap is effective against aphids, moths, turtles, leaf-eating caterpillars, spider mites, slugs.
- Against apple and fruit moths (the summer period of butterflies), tinnitsa (after flowering), aphids use tobacco dust fumigation. It is poured into small heaps of slightly damp straw with garbage or heaps of waste and set on fire.
- An infusion of burdock leaves is used against caterpillars of whites and a scoop.
Now compare the offers of other "lovers of folk solutions." For example, to combat caterpillars and larvae, they suggest spraying trees with a mixture of aconite (wrestler) solutions, hemlock leaves and inflorescences. How do you think this harmless folk method is, considering that plants are among the most poisonous representatives of the plant world?
It is almost impossible to list all the recommended compositions of herbs, roots, bulbs and fruits, chemical and biochemical preparations and compositions. But, after reading the article, you can make your choice of measures to protect garden crops from pests.