Clematis - “branch of grapes”
The beginning of the cultivation of clematis in Western Europe dates back to the 16th century, and in Japan, the culture of clematis has an even longer history. In Russia, clematis appeared at the beginning of the XIX century as greenhouse plants. Active work on the cultivation and introduction of clematis in our country began to develop only in the middle of the 20th century. As a result of breeding work, beautiful varieties and forms have been created that further emphasize the unique charm of these magnificent plants.
Clematis, or clematis, or lozenges (Clematis) Family of buttercups. Of the nearly 300 species belonging to the genus Clematis, 108 grow in China. The name of this plant comes from the Greek word ‘clematis’, which means "branch or shoot of grapes." In Russian, Clematis is called "clematis." Clematis - vines, shrubs or grassy perennials with woody flexible stems that can die for the winter or winter under shelter.
Depending on the size of the flower, small-flowered (up to 5 cm in diameter) and large-flowered (more than 5 cm in diameter) clematis are distinguished. Species plants propagated by seeds, and varietal - division of the bush or cuttings.
- Work calendar
- Clematis planting
- Conditions for growing clematis
- Clematis Care
- Clematis pruning
- Clematis Reproduction
- Types and varieties of clematis
- Diseases and pests of clematis
Necessary measures and approximate dates for clematis care.
The time of one or another agricultural technique depends on the geographical location of the site and weather conditions. Your personal observations of the growth and development of plants will make adjustments to the timing of the work.
Adult Clematis Care Work Begins In April
April. From the middle of the month, winter shelters must be very gradually removed. Do not rush. If you remove all the shelter, clematis sprouts will appear above the ground, and a very likely frost will destroy the root neck, the most vulnerable part of the plant. Cleavage of the root neck from spring frosts is the most common cause of death of clematis.
May. Spring revision of plants. You can transplant young seedlings to a permanent place and divide old bushes. Loosening, weeding. It is necessary to install new supports for clematis or check the reliability of old ones. As the shoots grow, they are attached to the supports.
If the sprouts of some plants do not appear, then talking about death is still premature. Carefully dig out and see the condition of the kidneys and root system. It is sometimes useful to dig a plant, rinse in water, divide by the number of living buds and plant in a new place. And sometimes - just wait for the start of growth.
June. Time of active growth of clematis. Weeding, loosening, garter lashes to supports. It is useful to shed clematis with milk of lime and feed slurry.
July. The lush flowering of all clematis in your garden. In dry weather, watering is necessary. Watering should be rare, but plentiful enough. Once every 2 weeks, you can feed with slurry and mineral fertilizers.
August. It is advisable to add ash to top dressing. This contributes to better ripening of lashes and improves winter hardiness of plants. Fertilizing with organic fertilizers and nitrogen is gradually stopped. In August, it is important to monitor the health of the bushes. A disease such as withering clematis, most often manifests itself in August.
September. Loosening the soil, weeding. Top dressing is stopped. You can transplant plants to better places.
October. In the middle of the month, autumn clematis pruning begins. It is important to make sure that the root neck is covered with earth. If it is on the surface, then it must be sprinkled with humus or compost. With a decrease in air temperature, plants begin to gradually shelter.
November. With the onset of stable frost, in dry weather, finish the clematis shelter for the winter. One of the serious dangers is the onset of frost before snow falls. With constant snow cover, clematis do not need shelter at all, but frost after a thaw can damage the plant.
Having covered clematis for the winter, you can safely part with your favorites before spring.
Since clematis can grow in one place for more than 20 years, they prepare the earth very deep in advance. Usually dig holes with a size of at least 60x60x60 cm, and for group plantings, the site is prepared over the entire area.
2-3 buckets of humus or compost, 1 bucket of peat and sand, 100-150 g of superphosphate, 200 g of full mineral fertilizer, preferably 100 g of bone meal, are mixed with the top layer of the earth, taken out of the pit and cleaned of the roots of perennial weeds. -200 g of lime or chalk, 200 g of ash. On light soils add more peat, humus and clay.
If the soil in the area is moist, dense or clay, then a 10-1 5-cm layer of crushed stone, broken brick or coarse sand is poured onto the bottom of the pit. Thoroughly mixed earthen mixture is poured into the pit and compacted. In southern areas, it is preferable to do this in the fall (from late September to early November; in the middle lane, the best time is September (in warm weather and later); even north of the clematis plant in the spring (late April-May) or early autumn. plant at any time (except winter, of course).
In the center of the pit establish a strong rigid support. A taut rope is not good here, it will not protect young fragile lashes from gusts of wind. Having filled the pit with soil about halfway, make a mound on which the roots of clematis are straightened to the sides and down.
Holding the plant with your hand, pour the mixture to the roots, making sure that the clematis is planted with a deepening. Only then will he develop a tillering center, on which later new buds are laid, shoots and roots are formed. Such bushes tolerate harsh winters better, suffer less from heat.
The clematis planted flush with the surface are short-lived: they do not scrub, grow in 1-2 stems, their root system suffers from getting wet. The larger the seedling, the deeper the planting should be. Young one-two-year-old plants are buried by 8-12 cm and the lower pair of buds, more mature and divided bushes - by 12-18 cm.
If clematis is planted in the spring, then the landing pit is not filled to the brim with earth, but 5-8 cm are left uncovered so that the “newcomer” does not “suffocate”. As the shoots are lignified, this space is gradually filled with soil. After planting, clematis is abundantly watered, shaded from the sun, and the surface of the earth around the plant is mulched with peat. When planting in the fall, the earth is poured to the edges, the whole aerial part is cut to the soil level or slightly higher.
Conditions for growing clematis
Clematis - photophilous plants. Therefore, in the middle lane they are best planted in sunny or slightly shaded areas at noon. Only in the southern regions, where clematis often suffer from soil overheating, are they planted in partial shade. In group plantings, each plant should receive enough light, and the distance between the bushes should be at least 1 meter.
The wind is a terrible enemy of clematis not only in summer but also in winter: it breaks and confuses shoots, damages flowers. Where snow is blown away in winter, planting clematis is not a good idea. And in the lowlands, where cold air accumulates, clematis feel uncomfortable.
Clematis is very demanding on moisture: during growth, they need abundant watering. At the same time, moist, swampy areas with a high standing of groundwater (less than 1.2 m) are not suitable for them, even if the water stagnates only for a short time. Waterlogging of the soil is dangerous not only in the summer, but also in the early spring during and after the snow melts. When planning clematis planting, you need to consider the natural outflow of water from the bush: add soil, plant bushes on ridges or dig grooves with a slope.
In spring, clematis is shed with milk of lime (200 g of lime per 10 liters of water per square meter). In dry weather, clematis are not watered often, but abundantly, making sure that the stream of water does not fall into the center of the bush.
Clematis is fed at least four times per season after irrigation with full mineral fertilizer with microelements at the rate of 20-40 g per 10 liters of water or diluted fermented mullein (1:10). Mineral and organic fertilizing alternate.
In the summer, once a month, plants are watered with a weak solution of boric acid (1-2 g) and potassium permanganate (2-3 g per 10 liters of water), and also urea bushes are sprayed (0.5 tbsp.spoons per 10 liters of water).
Since clematis can suffer from overheating and dryness of the soil, in the spring after the first watering and loosening of the planting, it should be mulched with peat or humus (in the northern regions) or sawdust (in the southern). To protect the soil from overheating and close the bottom of the shoots, clematis "knock out" the pilots.
In the spring, only the first time the creepers are guided along the support in the right direction and tied up. Otherwise, the growing shoots are intertwined so much that they can not be unraveled by any forces. Only in the varieties of the Integrifolia group, shoots and leaves lack the ability to wrap around supports, so they are tied up as they grow all summer.
In the fall, before shelter for the winter, clematis bushes are cut and thoroughly cleaned of old leaves. The first two or three years, young specimens require particularly careful care: in the autumn or early spring, well-rotted manure mixed with any potassium and phosphorus fertilizer, as well as wood ash (each handful per humus bucket) is added to the bushes, liquid feeding is done every 10- 15 days in small doses.
Pruning clematis as an agrotechnical measure is important.
Sanitary pruning is performed throughout the season, and dried and broken shoots are regularly removed. By pruning, you can adjust the growth and flowering of clematis. But the main thing that excites flower lovers is autumn pruning. It depends on the type and variety of clematis.
There are 3 ways to trim for the winter, differing in the varieties of clematis
All varieties of Jacqueman and Vititzella groups. These clematis bloom on the shoots of the current year. Therefore, during autumn pruning, you need to cut off the entire plant, leaving 2-3 knots above the ground. For this operation it is convenient to use a long sharp knife. Clematis blooming on the shoots of this year is easier to harbor others for the winter, because there is no need to save shoots until spring. Therefore, they are widely spread in our gardens.
Varieties of the Lanuginoza group, or wooly clematis, some varieties of the Patens and Florida groups. Varieties of this group in spring bloom on overwintered shoots, and towards the end of summer - on the shoots of the current year. The bush is cut to a height of 50-100 cm from the ground, the lower healthy and ripened shoots are laid on the ground and take cover. If the plant needs rejuvenation, then it can be cut below to the first true leaf.
Clematis groups Patens (sprawling) and Florida (flowery). These varieties bloom only on overwintered shoots. For winter, weak and non-lignified shoots are cut. The rest is shortened, leaving two-thirds of the height, but not more than 1-1.5 m. The scourges are folded and laid on the ground under a thorough shelter.
Varieties Patens and Florida are most difficult in winter. If the shoots are not preserved or flower buds freeze, then there will be no abundant flowering this year.
But it is the varieties of these groups that give the largest, most beautiful, often double flowers, worthy of decorating the gardens of experienced gardeners. For beginners, we recommend acquiring varieties of the Jacquman, Vititsella groups and some varieties of the Lanuginoza group.
There are two main methods of propagation of all plants: seed and vegetative. Seed - this is sowing seeds, in the vegetative way parts of plants are used: roots, stalk branches, green and lignified cuttings.
Hybrid large-flowered clematis cannot be propagated by seeds, because grown seedlings do not repeat the properties and varietal characteristics of the mother plant, the method is suitable only for propagating species of small-flowered clematis.
Dividing the bush
This is the easiest way to breed clematis, available to every lover of flowers. You can divide the bushes 5-6 years after planting, in autumn or spring. Dig a bush, divide it into several parts, plant each part according to the rules set forth in the planting section.
If the bush is very large and it is not possible to dig it out, then you need to dig it up on one side and separate a part of the plant with a shovel.
- The advantages of the method: the resulting plants bloom quickly.
- Disadvantages: all diseases of the maternal bush are transmitted, in some cases, the plants do not take root well due to a violation of the balance of roots and shoots.
Propagation by layering
In spring or autumn, grooves are radially dug from the bush, 5-10 cm deep. Lateral shoots are laid in these grooves, pressed with wire brackets, and covered with soil or peat.
After a year, rooted shoots can be separated from the plant and planted independently.
- The advantages of the method: easy to use, does not reduce the decorativeness of mother bushes.
- Disadvantages: diseases of maternal plants can be transmitted, not suitable for industrial use.
The method of obtaining a large number of clematis seedlings in an industrial environment is also used by amateurs.
Cuttings by time are divided into winter, spring and summer.
Planting material - clematis cuttings, green or lignified are used. To improve the result, growth stimulants are used: heteroauxin, beta-indolylbutyric acid, anaphthylacetic acid, such finished preparations as epin, rootin, etc. It is very important to maintain the temperature regime, 18-20 degrees, constant air humidity.
Cuttings are best rooted when using a fogging plant. Plants should be protected from direct sunlight, from overheating, from drying out and from high humidity.
The main advantage of this method is obtaining healthy seedlings without hereditary diseases that develop on their own roots.
Types and varieties of clematis
Clematis of the Jacqueman group - their ancestor is large-flowered Clematis Jacquman (Clematis jackmanii) Large shrub vines with shoots 3-4 m long and a well-developed root system. The flowers are large (12-16 cm in diameter), blue-violet-purple tones, odorless.
They are characterized by abundant and prolonged flowering on the shoots of the current year from June to frost. In winter, the shoots are cut to ground level or leave the base of the shoots with 2-3 pairs of buds.
Varieties: Gypsy Queen, Nikolai Rubtsov, Madame Vilar, Hegley Hybrid, Comtes de Busho, Georg Ots, Luther Burbank, Negro.
Variety group clematis violet, or clematis vineyard (Clematis viticella) (Vititsella) - creepers up to 3 m high with flowers of 8-12 cm in the prevailing pink-red-purpurous tone. Bloom from June to frost on the shoots of the current year.
Varieties: Ville de Lyon, Ernest Markham, Cloud, Lilac Star, Nikitsky pink, Niobe.
Variety group spreading clematis (Clematis patens) (Patens) - curly, up to 4 m high. Flowers with a diameter of up to 15 cm, often double with a predominance of white and pale blue tones. Flowering from July to September on the shoots of last year. Heat-loving and suffer from frost.
Varieties: Hope, President.
Clematis of the Florida group - creepers up to 4 m high. Occurred when crossing flowery clematis (Clematis florida) with species and varieties of other groups. Flowers of various colors, usually double, with a diameter of 8-12 cm.Flowering in June-July on overwintered shoots.
Varieties: Daniel Deronda, Mrs. Cholmondeli.
Variety group clematis (Clematis integrifolia) (Integrifolia) - vigorous, climbing semi-shrubs or creeping unhanging vines 1 - 2.5 m high. The flowers are bell-shaped, drooping, with a diameter of 5 - 12 cm, of different colors, are formed on the shoots of the current year. Bloom from June to September.
Varieties: Blue bird, blue rain.
Variety group clematis woolly (Clematis lanuginosa) (Lanuginoza) - creepers up to 3 m high with white or blue flowers (a bright stripe often passes through the center) up to 15 cm in size. Flowering from June and repeated in August-September on last year's shoots.
Varieties: Ballerina, Serenade, Virginia, Blue Jam, Ramona, Dr. Ruppel, Blue Light, Multi Blue, Jacques Manialba, Olympics-80.
Variety group clematis mountain (Clematis montana) (Montana) - they are characterized by abundant flowering in May on the shoots of last year. Partial pruning in early spring.
Variety group clematis texas (Clematis texensis) (Texensis) came from the crossing of Texas clematis with different species, varieties and forms of other groups.
Variety group hogweed clematis (Clematis heracleifolia) (Heracleifolia) - vigorous climbing shrubs that bloom profusely on the shoots of the current year from July to October. Pruning in early spring.
Variety group Clematis Isfahansky (Clematis ispahanica) (Isphaganics) - in the group there is only one species obtained as a result of a mutation of the original species. Blooms profusely on the shoots of the current year in July-September. Pruning in early spring.
In regions where there are severe frosts in winter and short summers, i.e. in the northwestern regions of the European part of Russia, Siberia and the Far East, it is better to plant clematis from the Jacqueman, Integrifolia and Vititzella groups, namely the early and mid-early varieties: Ville de Lyon, Gypsy Queen, Victoria, Luther Burbank, Serebryany Rucheyok, Hegley Hybrid, Madame Baron Vilar, Blue Flame, Alexandrite, Golden Anniversary, Alyonushka, Victory Salute, Anastasia Anisimova, Rouge Cardinal, Sizaya Bird, Cloud, Anre Leroy, Lilac Star, Niobe.
But some varieties of the Jacqueman group prefer more southern places - Elegy, Mountaineer, Biryuzinka, Openwork.
Clematis of the Lanuginoza, Patens, Florida groups (their first flowering occurs on the shoots of last year) is less winter-hardy and require sheltering vines even in the middle lane. But some varieties (Nelly Moser, Stone Flower, Ramona, Lazurstern, Flower Ball, Nadezhda, Mrs. Hope, Mrs. Cholmondeli) grow and bloom in the northern regions.
Terry clematis with double flowers bloom abundantly in the southern regions: Daniel Deronda, Joan of Arc, Lord Neville. In the middle lane of these varieties, only the first flowers on lasted winter's shoots will be terry.
Low-growing clematis varieties grow on sunny balconies - Jeanne d’Arc, Hegley Hybrid, Comtes de Busho, Madame Eduard Andre, Ruutel, Cardinal Rouge.
Most wild-growing species with flowers up to 4-5 cm in diameter are considered small-flowered clematis. Species clematis are less common, although they are unpretentious, grow rapidly, and are resistant to drought and fungal diseases. Flowering in them lasts from 2 weeks to 4 months and is no less spectacular than in large-flowered counterparts.
In our country, clematis of hogweed, Gournana, forest (can be affected by powdery mildew in the south), paniculate, pilchifolia, straight and its forms, bluish, Tangut, violet and its forms, whole-leaved, six-leaved, grow beautifully. For areas with a dry and hot climate, clematis grape leaves, virgin, eastern, ligustifolia, etc. are most suitable.
In the north-west, Siberia and the Far East, clematis Alpine, brown, pungent (especially for the more southern regions), Chinese, bell-shaped, short-tailed, cole-crested, Okhotsk and others will grow well, and for the southeastern regions, also Dzungarian and Isfahan. In places with a mild, cool and humid climate, you should experience the Clematis Manchu, Raeder, Fargeza.
Diseases and pests of clematis
Clematis is a long-lasting and healthy plant, but can sometimes be affected by diseases and pests.
All existing plant diseases are divided into 2 groups: infectious and non-infectious. The causative agents of infectious diseases are fungi, bacteria and viruses. The cause of noncommunicable diseases is adverse growth conditions.
All activities aimed at plant health are divided into preventive and actually therapeutic. Preventive measures are carried out annually, all healthy plants are processed. Therapeutic measures are carried out when signs of disease or pests appear.
The main enemies of clematis are fungal diseases. The most dangerous of them are fusarium and wilt (wilting). These diseases contribute to increased humidity and waterlogging of the soil. The best control and prevention measures are compliance with agrotechnical measures, a good place for landing clematis.
If any fungal disease is manifested, it is necessary to carry out sanitary trimming of the damaged parts of the plant, all the cut-out residues must be burned. Plants can be sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid, copper or iron sulfate.
Against withering of the shoots (wilt), the soil and the base of the shoots are sprayed with foundationazole (20 g per 10 liters of water) or another permitted fungicide.
Good results for the prevention of diseases and pests gives landing next to the clematis marigold or marigold. These annuals shade the base of clematis shoots, repel insect pests with their specific smell, and do not impede weeding, as they are removed in the fall. In addition, most clematis look very beautiful against the background of these yellow-orange plants.
Among the pests of clematis, a nematode is sometimes found. In this case, it is prudent to destroy the plant, and disinfect the soil.
The fight against other pests - mites, flies, thrips is carried out by conventional methods.
The most important thing to protect your garden from dangerous infectious diseases is to carefully check the purchased planting material.
These wonderful plants are becoming increasingly popular due to their unusually beautiful large flowers of various colors and extraordinary flowering time. And besides, most varieties have good winter hardiness, unpretentiousness and durability. We are waiting for your comments!