Euonymus is a glorious plant
Euonymos are quite widely used in decorative gardening - both in single and group plantings, or when creating a hedge. The lace crown makes them especially attractive - relatively small leaves on densely branching shoots create an intricate ornament. Dark green in the summer, with the onset of autumn, they change in just a week, acquiring all shades of red. Ripe fruits, similar to unusual lanterns, also decorate the garden.
Euonymus (Euonymus) - a genus of plants of the Bereskletovye family (Celastraceae) The scientific name Euonymus (Linnaeus used Evonymus) is based on the Latin name, which goes back to Greek. ευ is good, good, and όνομα is the name. That is, Euonymus is a plant “with a good name”, “glorious”.
Eucalyptus plants grow in the undergrowth of broad-leaved and mixed forests mainly in the temperate and subtropical regions of both hemispheres (with the exception of the extreme northern regions), rarely found in the tropics.
The genus Beresklet combines deciduous and evergreen low trees or shrubs with tetrahedral or rounded shoots, often with cork growths, opposite smooth leaves.
Nondescript small flowers of euonymus, pale colored - greenish or brownish, collected 4-5 in axillary multifloral corymbose or racemose inflorescences, bloom after unfolding leaves. They consist of 4–5 sepals, 4–5 petals, and the same number of stamens and pistil with a 3–5 lobed ovary.
About the fruits of euonymus should be said separately. The euonymus fruit is a dry, leathery, usually four-sectioned capsule, inside of which there are white, red or brown-black seeds covered with fleshy tissue - the seedling. The hellwort in different species of euonymus is colored in orange, red or red-brown. In summer, immature pale green capsules are invisible, but by September they will acquire a bright color. Depending on the species, it can be yellow, pink, scarlet, raspberry, burgundy or dark purple. The European euonymus in culture has an original white-fruited (“Alba”) form.
Against the background of still green leaves of euonymus, garlands of bright fruits look surprisingly contrasting. From a distance it seems that the plant is blooming. When the time comes for “burning” leaves, the boxes crack at the seams, forming a “parachute”, under which “parachutists” hang on short legs - several seeds covered with seedlings. Only euonymos have such original fruits. As for their toxicity, they are not as dangerous as it is presented in some publications. The euonymus fruits actually contain a number of poisonous alkaloids, but you will have to eat a lot of them in order to poison an adult.
Another noteworthy decorative feature of euonymos is young shoots covered with greenish or brownish bark. In some species, they are ordinary, round in section (large-winged, Sakhalin, low-flowered euonymus), in others - tetrahedral (euonymus, European, Siebold, Maak, Bunge, Hamilton) with thin longitudinal gray ridges. But there are some (winged, cork, sacred euonymus), in which instead of rollers along the young shoot there are four sharp cork ribs, giving the bush a peculiar appearance, especially in winter, when snow lingers on these ribs. Our native species, the warty euonymus, which can be found in the shady places of many Russian forests, differs from its counterparts in the green bark covered with numerous brown warts.
Features of growing euonymus
Location: Attitudes to light are different for different species. In the open, it is better to plant Maak euonymus. In partial shade, among tall overgrown trees, European and warty euonymus will be comfortable. In a shaded place at the border of the site, you will get an original hedge from a sacred or Sakhalin euonymus. When creating a decorative group on a slope, it is better to choose large-winged and Sakhalin euonymus, there they can grow well due to the rooting of the lower branches. Eucalyptus gas and smoke resistant, therefore, easily reconciled with urban conditions.
Soil for euonymus: demanding on soil richness and aeration. Do not tolerate stagnant moisture. For successful euonymus cultivation in a culture, neutral or slightly alkaline soils are needed; lime should be added to acidic soils. For better fruiting, it is recommended to apply organic and mineral fertilizers, in clay soils - sand.
Temperature: Best for euonymus are rooms with a winter temperature of 2 to 8 degrees for species with green leaves and 6 to 16 degrees for variegated plants. These are cool winter gardens, warmed loggias and other rooms. In summer, a moderate temperature of up to 20 degrees is desirable for euonymus. Dry and hot conditions are dangerous, as they contribute to the spread and severe damage of leaves by a tick.
Watering the euonymus is regulated depending on temperature, from moderate to very moderate in winter. The earthen lump should not dry out much, this can destroy the plant.
Transplantation of young plants is carried out annually in early spring, from the beginning of February. Old specimens of euonymus can be transplanted less frequently. Do not combine transplant with strong anti-aging pruning. A medium-density land mixture of turf or garden soil and sand, with small additions of compost, peat and humus.
Most species of euonymus reproduce well vegetatively: dividing the bush, root offspring, green cuttings. For the latter, in June-July, young, but already quite elastic shoots are chosen. 4-6 cm long cuttings with one internode are cut from them. Planted in a greenhouse under a film in a substrate of fertile soil, on top of which sand is poured with a layer of 5-7 cm. The roots develop in 1.5 months.
Seed reproduction of euonymus is somewhat more complicated. When sown without stratification and in nature, the bulk of the seeds germinate only in the second spring. Therefore, immediately after collection, euonymus seeds should be stratified, for which they are mixed with coarse-grained, calcined sand or poorly decomposed moist sphagnum peat in a ratio of 1: 2. Stratification takes place in two stages. First, euonymus seeds are kept at a temperature of 10-12ºС for 3-4 months. When the shell bursts in the majority (70-80%), the temperature is reduced to 0-plus 3 and stored in such conditions for another 4-5 months. To prevent rotting before laying the seeds should be cleaned of seedlings and pickled in a 0.5% solution of potassium permanganate.
Sow on beds in shallow (about 2 cm) grooves in a substrate of leaf and turf soil, humus and sand in a ratio of 4: 1: 2: 1. Shoots appear after 2-3 weeks. In spring and autumn, it is recommended to mulch euonymus seedlings with peat crust with a layer of 3 cm. During the summer, plants are watered and fed with mullein, and covered with lapnik for winter. In the 3rd year they are transplanted to a permanent place.
Types of euonymus
Warty euonymus - Euonymus verrucosus
Homeland - the temperate latitudes of Eurasia. Shrub up to 3.5 m high, less often - a small tree up to 6 m high. Young shoots are green, covered with black-brown warts. Flowers on long peduncles. It blooms in May - June. The box is 4-lobed, pink-red in mature form. Seeds are black or gray, half covered with bright red or pinkish-orange seedling. The fruits ripen in August - September.
European euonymus - Euonymus europaeus
Homeland - Europe. Shrub or tree up to 7 m high. Cork growths on the branches are characteristic, giving them a 4-sided shape. Flowers with green petals on short peduncles. It blooms in May - June. The fruits ripen in September - October. The boxes are pink, the seeds are white, black or bright red, completely covered by a seedling. Drought tolerant.
Dwarfish euonymus - Euonymus nanus
It is found as - Euonymus nana. Homeland - temperate regions of Eurasia. Shoots are vertical, reach 1 meter in height. Leaves 1-4 cm long, narrow-lanceolate, rarely finely dentate. The fruits are pale yellow-greenish capsules, ripen in August-September. Shade-loving. Propagated by seeds, cuttings, layering, dividing bushes.
Winged euonymus - Euonymus alatus
It occurs as E. alata, or as the sacred spindle-tree (Euonymus sacrosanctus Koidz.). According to English taxonomy, the sacred spindle-tree (E. sacrosanctus Koidz.) Is synonymous with the winged spindle diff. pubescens (Euonymus alatus var. pubescens Maxim.).
At home - the Far East - a bush up to 2 meters high. In the middle lane - up to 1 meter, but sometimes higher. Young branches are green, rounded tetrahedral, with longitudinal brownish cork wings up to 0.5 cm wide. Decorative fruits are dark red 4-membered capsules. Autumn color of leaves is bright red. Shade tolerant.
Beresklet Semenova - Euonymus semenovii
Homeland - the mountains of Central Asia, where it grows under the forest canopy. Shrub up to 1 meter high, often creeping. The leaves are leathery, yellowish-green, with short petioles, ovate-lanceolate in shape, 1.5-6 cm long and 0.5-2 cm wide. The flowers are small, dark purple, with greenish edges of the petals, collected in small umbrellas at the edges of the twigs. It blooms in July, bears fruit in August. Shade tolerant. Winter-hardy. Prefers shady places with moderate humidity. Propagated by seeds.
Fortune's Euonymus - Euonymus fortunei
Homeland - China Creeping shrub 30-60 cm tall, with long, up to three meters, branches. The branches in the nodes take root, climb the support, if any. The leaves are small, elliptical, pointed, leathery, up to 2-6 cm long. Drought tolerant. Gas resistant. Prefers loose, fertilized soil. The most frost-resistant of evergreen euonymos. Prefers partial shade, but can withstand the open sun, although it grows worse. There are many decorative forms. Among them: “Emerald in Gold” - young foliage has a bright yellow edging, which becomes light green with age, and in winter - red-brown. It is permissible to grow this type of euonymus in room conditions, if it is possible to provide it with a cold wintering. In the middle lane in the open air, it is advisable to grow in container form, to clean up in unheated rooms for the winter, or to provide good shelter for plantings.
Japanese euonymus - Euonymus japonicus
Synonym - Pseudo Laurus. Homeland - Japan. In the suburbs there is a shrub up to 0.5 meters high, in nature and in the south there is a shrub or liana up to 7 m. The leaves are obovate, less often narrow elliptic, 3-8 cm long, leathery, dark green, sometimes shiny from above. , naked on both sides. The top of the leaf is blunt or rounded. Blossoms in June, flowers are yellowish-green up to 1 cm, an umbrella of 10-30 pieces is collected in inflorescences. It tolerates partial shade. Resistant to air pollution. This species is used in indoor culture. Suitable plant for a bright unheated room. In a room with central heating, he may throw off leaves in winter. There are many decorative forms.
Sometimes in indoor floriculture there is a root spindle tree - Euoaymus radicans, with creeping shoots that need support. There are forms with green and variegated white-green leaves.
Diseases and pests of euonymus
The wide distribution of this shrub in gardening, apparently, is hindered by one interesting feature of it. Both the European euonymus and the forest warty attract pests extremely strongly. Hawthorn, apple moth, various aphids and other pests like nesting beetles and moths are especially fond of nesting on bushes. It is interesting when everything is covered in a cobweb with nests of caterpillars on an euonymus planted near fruit trees, and completely clean on apple trees growing nearby. So euonymus can be used to protect the garden from pests, especially since this plant is easy to treat with any pesticide, not being afraid to damage the crop.
Shields: brown plaques on the surface of leaves and stems, suck out cell juice. Leaves lose their color, turn yellow, dry and fall off.
Control measures: Spray the plant with 0.15% Actellik solution (1-2 ml per liter of water). The problem is that it is difficult to manually remove pests from the numerous leaves of the euonymus.
Spider mite - A spider web appears in the internodes on the stems, the leaves become lethargic and fall off.
Control measures: Wipe the plant with a soapy sponge and wash under a warm shower. Regularly sprayed. With a very severe lesion, the euonymus can be sprayed with a 0.15% actellic solution (1-2 ml per liter of water).
Red flat tick - the pest itself is not visible, but light dots appear on the leaves and they bend. Young shoots are especially affected.
Control measures: Remove damaged leaves and spray the plant with any insecticide.
Eucalyptus trees have long attracted the attention of gardeners for their unpretentiousness, shade tolerance and decorativeness. Usually modest, in the fall they become unusually beautiful.