How to grow physalis - decorative and not only
Bright orange lanterns of physalis are familiar to everyone. Physalis is very effective, its bushes can become a bright touch in the design of flower beds, and fruit or vegetable physalis will add variety to the vegetable menu. Berry and vegetable physalis and its many varieties with different aromas and tastes canned and consumed fresh. It is also very beautiful, but unlike decorative, it is completely edible. It is easy to grow all the physalis - you just have to take care of the right conditions and at least minimal care.
Lighting, comfortable for physalis
Physalises adapt well to complex, variable growing conditions. They can bear fruit in partial shade, and in light unstable shading, and in the bright sun. But they bloom and bear fruit most actively, form the most beautiful bushes of physalis in sunny, open areas. Physalis is not afraid of drafts and even winds.
Soil for physalis
When choosing soil, focus on its acidity. In even slightly acidic soils, neither decorative nor fruit physalis can grow, so before planting, make sure that the soil is calcareous or neutral. Also categorically avoid places with stagnant water, a high level of groundwater, marshy and compacted areas.
In order to succeed in growing this plant, choose loose, drained, high-quality soil with a high level of nutrient content.
Before planting any physalis, care must be taken to improve the soil. It must be dug twice to a depth of at least 40 cm. After the first dig, add organic and mineral fertilizers to the ground, repeat the dig, or aerate the soil with a pitchfork.
For physalis, it is very important to leave enough space for growth. This plant is placed at a distance of about 50 cm from other crops. Planting is carried out in individual holes, after planting, immediately watering the plants. It is best to complete the planting by mulching the soil.
Physalis needs a fairly frequent rejuvenation. The bushes grow rapidly and often spread to neighboring plantings, so with a regularity of 5-7 years, they need to be rejuvenated by separation and transferred to a new place.
Watering for physalis
Decorative physalis is quite drought tolerant and needs watering only during a very long drought. But the vegetable will need a much more intensive care. It is advisable to provide physalis on the beds with regular, systemic irrigation. On hot, sunny days, provided there is no natural rainfall, watering is traditionally carried out every other day, in cloudy weather and with normal rainfall - 1 time per week.
Fertilizers for decorative and vegetable physalis
Regardless of the purpose for which you grow physalis, plants are grateful to respond to maintaining high soil nutrition. The optimal strategy is fertilizing 2 times a year:
- the first top dressing is introduced at the initial stage of development, during active growth, using humus, compost or wood ash, or complex mineral fertilizer (40-50 g of nitrophosphate or 10-20 g of superphosphate, potassium salt, ammonium nitrate per 1 square meter of area and 1 bucket of water);
- the second top dressing is carried out at the beginning of flowering with the same fertilizers.
You can apply 3 top dressings - in early spring, at the budding stage and after flowering begins (the third is carried out in August or September, using 10-20 g of potassium and phosphorus fertilizers).
Loosening the soil and weeding
All physalises, without exception, do not like neighborhood with weeds. At least once a month or 1.5 months, it is necessary to weed while loosening the soil and maintaining its water permeability. You can get rid of weeding only using the method of mulching.
Physalis pruning and harvesting
Physalis does not need a shaping, anti-aging or regulatory pruning. To increase the yield and number of flowers on the plant, it is enough to pinch the tops of the branches. This procedure is best done in June.
Cutting decorative lanterns of physalis can be carried out as soon as the wrappers acquire a characteristic orange color and until the opening of the casement leaves. Vegetable physalis begins to ripen 80-90 days after sowing. When ripening, the fruits acquire a characteristic color for the variety, and the lanterns dry out and brighten. Harvest physalis is possible only on sunny days. Unripe fruits are well stored, gradually ripening and sometimes not spoiling until spring, if stored in the refrigerator.
Diseases and pests of physalis
The danger to physalis is only threatened by improper selection of growing conditions or careless care. In too wet soil, the physalis is quickly affected by stem rot. And in the vicinity of diseased plants and excessive dryness, aphids often inhabit them.
It is better to fight insects with insecticides, but do not rush to resort to chemical methods of fighting with diseases: first transfer the physalis to the conditions suitable for them or adjust the care.
Both ornamental and vegetable physalis are great for growing in the middle strip. They do not need protection for the winter, even a small one. In conditions of snowless wintering, bushes can freeze, but will quickly recover.
Propagation of physalis
Physalis breed very easily. To obtain this plant and increase plantings, you can use seeds or cuttings, or you can resort to the classic separation of the bushes during rejuvenation.
The most effective method of propagating physalis is separation. Due to its creeping rhizomes, the physalis quickly adapts to new places and transfers the transplant perfectly. Separation can be carried out both in spring and in autumn, while one adult bush can be divided into small divisions with several shoots and a good bunch of roots.
Cuttings of physalis can be cut only in July. For breeding, cut off the top of the shoot with 2 or 3 full kidneys. Rooted cuttings in standard conditions under the hood.
Physalis can be grown from seeds through seedlings and by sowing directly in a permanent place. At the same time, they can be sown in the soil both in spring and in the winter, but in conditions of the middle lane it is better to limit themselves to May sowing.
Sowing physalis for seedlings is carried out in the middle or end of April, using personal, ideally peat pots for each seed. As they grow up, seedlings are fed 1 time with full mineral fertilizers. It is possible to transfer young physalis to the ground only from the end of May, when the threat of frost disappears. Prior to adaptation, both decorative and vegetable physalis should be often watered and shaded from midday rays.