Sempervivum - rabbit cabbage
Ancient legends claim that in Europe the young was dedicated to the Scandinavian god of thunder and lightning Thor. Therefore, in the Middle Ages, by order of Charlemagne, pretty young rosettes were planted on the roofs of houses. At that time, the townspeople seriously believed that such a security measure could ward off a lightning bolt from their houses during a thunderstorm.
YoungLatin - Sempervivum, folk - stone rose, rabbit cabbage.
The name comes from the Latin words ‘semper’ - always and ‘vivus’ - alive, for the ability of leaf sockets to remain viable in extreme conditions of existence. In Russia, the plant is also called "stone rose", "rabbit cabbage", "young growth". At the time of flowering, the youngster resembles a brood hen surrounded by numerous chickens. From here came its popular English name ‘Hens and Chickens’ - “mother and chickens”.
The genus has about 30-50 species in Central, Southern and Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor and Southwest Asia, mainly in mountainous regions. In Russia, they reach the east to the Volga. They grow on stony, gravelly places, in pine trees in the sand. Young people have the same lifestyle as mountain golosnikov. It hybridizes very easily both in nature and in culture. There are many varieties.
Fleshy, pubescent with glandular hairs, less often - almost naked perennials, forming very thick multi-leaf rosettes of leaves 1-15 cm in diameter and numerous stolons carrying small rosettes of leaves. Flower stalks are usually pubescent with small glandular hairs, erect and unbranched. Monocarpics, i.e. bloom once and die off. The leaves are succulent, alternate, whole-edged, usually ovate or oblong, sharp or pointed, ciliate along the edge.
The flowers are regular, 8-20-dimensional, bisexual, with a double perianth, almost sessile, collected in corymbose-paniculate inflorescences, individual branches of which are monochasias (i.e., inflorescences in which lateral axes develop under the apical flowers of the main axis, then growing in the main and also bearing flowers). The sepals are fleshy, fused at the base, whole-marginal, usually covered with short simple or glandular hairs, rarely bare.
Petals are lanceolate, always longer than the sepals, usually star-shaped, white, yellow, yellow-green, red, pink, or purple on the edges and on the outside. Stamens twice as many as petals, from 16 to 40; opposite to the petals grow at the base to them, and the next petals are free; stamens usually flattened, pubescent, or less often bare; anthers are oblong ovoid.
Nectar glands are subpesticular, small, lamellar, solid at the apex. Gynoecium (i.e., a set of flower carpels forming one or more pistils - the female organs of the flower) free of 8-20 unequal, oblong-ovate, usually glandular, sessile carpels; styloids a little shorter than the ovary, straight, bare; the stigmas are small, capitate. A fruit of 8-20 oblong ovoid or almost lanceolate, pubescent with glandular hairs, multi-seeded leaflets.
There are some beliefs associated with young people. So, plants taken orally with wine served as an antidote. A specially prepared tincture made the person's eyesight and hearing sharper. At the time of Prince Vladimir the Red Sun, Russian beauties rubbed their cheeks with a youthful face so that the blush was brighter. The French poet and pharmacist Odo from Mena, who lived during the time of the Crusades, wrote that someone who carries a young woman’s outlet will avoid a scorpion bite. In his famous poem "On the Properties of Herbs" thirty-six lines are devoted to the "stone rose" - six lines more than the present rose.
With the constant perfection of its rosettes, juveniles are infinitely diverse in shape and color of leaves. The first experiences of using young in landscape design date back to the Middle Ages. Residents of medieval Europe planted the whole flat roofs of their houses. The memory of this was preserved in the name of one of the species - roofing young (Sempervivum tectorum). This plant was also used as a living tile in England.
Interest in the decorative properties of youngsters aroused in the eighteenth century. At the same time, the main methods for planting these plants took shape - borders and carpets from youngsters appeared in French gardens. They were traditionally used as ornamental plants in stalls, making up lines and figures. Free, asymmetric landing appeared later, at the end of the nineteenth century. At the same time, the first European rock gardens appeared, and the youngsters took their permanent place there, traditionally adjacent to low ground cover stonecrops and saxifrages.
In the second half of the twentieth century, young shoots become the object of close attention of flower growers, their targeted selection begins. The Dutch and Americans, Germans and British suffered from this passion at different times. The breeding achievements of recent decades have followed a new fashion for colored forms of plants. Already in Europe there are many spectacular dark-colored cultivars - from dark carmine to almost black, or rather, a deep purple color, because black plants do not exist in nature. But in our country, instances of deep saturated color are not often found so far.
In general, the number of varieties of juveniles today is quite large. The number of registered has already exceeded four thousand. This figure is far superior to the original sixty species. So we can assume that the man’s attempt to correct nature in this case was a success. It is hoped that these hordes of cultivars will gradually become available to Russian lovers.
Numerous varieties of juveniles represent a wide range of diverse colors of outlets. There are green, silver, yellowish, pink, burgundy, and some varieties change the color of leaves depending on the season. This allows you to widely use them in creating colorful "carpet" coatings. Different species when co-grown can be pollinated, and many hybrids are obtained in the culture. Interspecific hybrids are described even from natural habitats.
Features of growing young
The location of young
Youngsters are well adapted to our unstable, sometimes damp, now hot, or cold climate. It is quite resistant in culture, do not require other measures against excess moisture, except for good drainage. The most sensitive to dampness is highly pubescent cobweb young. All species and varieties are drought tolerant. Shading, including weeds or leaf decay, is contraindicated. Of course, they do not die immediately upon overgrowing, but they are stretched, lose their compact shape and bright color.
Soil for youngsters
They develop well on any cultivated soils, avoiding wet ones. But dry, poor, sandy soils are preferred. If the soil contains a lot of nutrients, the plant, although it forms larger rosettes, but their color will be slightly paler than usual, and they themselves will be less resistant to overwintering. Soils for all species are desirable neutral or slightly alkaline. Coarse sand, expanded clay, granite screenings are used for loosening.
Plants are planted so that the distance between specimens of large species is 10-15 cm, small - 3-5 cm. After a year, daughter rosettes completely cover the soil surface.
Care consists in the timely removal of weeds and faded inflorescences along with a dead rosette of leaves. In moist soil, the lower leaves in the rosette begin to rot. This is the first sign of excess moisture. Once every 3-5 years, if the groups become too crowded and the sockets begin to fade, youngsters are seated. Youngsters are still not very drought tolerant, especially if they grow on poor soils. They do not die, but twist the sockets and lose their decorative effect.
Propagated usually vegetatively, seed propagation is impractical, since in most species a large number of small daughter rosettes are formed. Their separation and landing is usually carried out in the spring, sometimes in the summer. Very small sockets grow on ridges, large ones are immediately planted in a permanent place, maintaining a distance of 10 cm.
Seeds are sown in February-March to a depth of not more than 1 mm. Germinate at a temperature of 20 ° C. Shoots appear after 3-5 days. Seedlings are kept in the light, protecting from the hot sun. A permanent place is planted in late June-July.
Youngsters are very effective in group plantings on the southern side of shrubs, in carpet compositions, on rocky areas and slopes.
Partners: does not get along with lush plants.
Diseases and pests young
The main enemy of the young - birds, namely: magpies, jays, jackdaws and crows.
Larvae of the May beetle can also damage youngsters; they not only gnaw the roots, the youngsters could easily cope with this, but manage to eat out the base of a juicy shortened stalk. Such outlets have to be rooted anew, having preliminarily collected that part of the leaves that remained without a “support”. In those places where the soil is heavily infected with this pest, it is useful to replant youngsters every year, choosing larvae from the ground.
Of diseases, rot of an undiagnosed nature often causes trouble. In rainy cold weather, individual outlets decay. At first they are made as if transparent, and they quickly turn brown and “become soft”. But, as a rule, the process does not spread to neighboring outlets. Sick people just need to be removed early, and it is clear that the process of decay begins from the bottom.
Types of youngsters
Roofing young (Sempervivum tectorum) - sockets are spherical or slightly flattened, the diameter of the sockets is 4-15 cm, depending on the variety. The leaves are large, fleshy, with sharp, sometimes reddish tips. Peduncles pubescent, densely leafy, up to 60 cm tall. The flowers are dark or light purple, star-shaped, up to 2 cm in diameter, collected in corymbose, highly branched inflorescences. Flowering in July-August for 40-45 days. It grows in the European part of Russia, Europe, Asia Minor.
Young offspring (Sempervivum soboliferum) - rosettes are spherical, up to 5 cm in diameter, the leaves are light green, reddening at the apex. The flowers are pale yellow or greenish, collected in corymbose inflorescences. Flowering in July-August for 35-40 days. It is found in Europe and the European part of Russia.
Young cobweb (Sempervivum arachnoideum) - Grows in the mountains of Western Europe. Leaf sockets up to 4 cm in diameter, spherical, slightly flattened on top. The leaves are oblong-lanceolate, bent at the ends, light green with a reddish-brown tint, aggravated by autumn, cobweb-pubescent with light hairs. Peduncles up to 30 cm tall, leafy.
Stem leaves pointed, sessile, oblong. The flowers are reddish, collected in corymbose inflorescences. It blooms from the second half of July. It has garden varieties that differ in the size of rosettes and leaf color.
Young Russian (Sempervivum ruthenicum) — It grows wild in the European part of Russia, in the Balkans and in Asia Minor. Rosette of leaves up to 6 cm in diameter. Rosette leaves are oblong or obovate-wedge-shaped, shortly pointed; on peduncles - oblong-lanceolate, pointed, pubescent on both sides. Peduncles up to 35 cm tall. The flowers are yellow, in loose corymbose inflorescences up to 10 cm across. Blossoms in July-August 35-40 days.
Young growth spherical (Sempervivum globiferum) — Grows in the Caucasus, in Northeast Turkey. Plants with oblong-lobed, reddening leaves at the top, collected in rosettes up to 5 cm in diameter. The leaves on the stalk are oblong-ovate, widened, sharp to the base. The flowers are yellow or yellow-green, collected in umbellate-corymbose inflorescences with short fluffy branches. It blooms in July-August.
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