What siderates to sow in a greenhouse?
Almost every summer house has a greenhouse or a greenhouse. They are used mainly to extend the period of consumption of fresh vegetables and green crops in the hosts menu, or for growing seedlings. A greenhouse is a special world where the systems of plants, insects and soil are closely interacting. A limited list of cultivated crops removes the same nutrients from the soil, depleting it in a short time and violating the optimal ratio of nutrients. Regular planting of green manure in a greenhouse helps to avoid this problem. What siderates and when to sow in a greenhouse, we will tell in this material.
- Why should green manure be sown in a greenhouse?
- What green manure is suitable for planting in a greenhouse?
- Agricultural technology of growing green manure in a greenhouse
- Do you need fertilizers for green manure?
Why should green manure be sown in a greenhouse?
Growing plants in a greenhouse gradually destroys the fertility and structure of the soil. After several years of permanent use, fertile soil turns into barren mineralized soil. In a confined space, negative microflora accumulate, affecting greenhouse crops with fungal, microbial, viral and other diseases. Productivity sharply decreases.
Of course, there are ways to solve the problem of soil infertility, reduce contamination with negative microflora and other negative consequences. The following methods are most known and used by the owners of summer cottages - manure application, soil replacement (full or partial), disinfection of the interior of greenhouses and soil. But they are laborious, take time and effort, to one degree or another affect the family budget.
In the natural nature, plants independently, without human intervention, help themselves, enrich the soil with organic matter by decaying the aboveground and underground masses, create a favorable environment for beneficial microflora and destroy the pathogenic.
What if closed spaces are needed to get fresh vegetables and herbs? What activities will provide a positive result; will reduce labor and time costs when performing work to care for soil and plants in greenhouses and greenhouses?
Nature herself suggested a way out. Recently, siderata technology has been increasingly used to create an ecosystem cycle in an enclosed space, which makes it possible to enrich the soil of greenhouses with organic matter in a relatively short period of time, to improve soil structure, quality and fertility.
Siderata - fast-growing annual plants, which in 2-4 weeks form a large green mass and a developed fibrous root system, located in the upper 30-40 cm layer of soil.
Powerful roots of young plants "work" as a soil bioplow. A developing root system fluffs up the soil, improving access to moisture and oxygen. Siderata is actually an organic fertilizer, returning to the soil with rapid decomposition the main nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium), trace elements, without requiring costs and funds for their acquisition and application.
Due to its biological characteristics, green manure cultures quickly saturate the soil with humus - the main component of its fertility, create a favorable environment for beneficial microorganisms, worms, etc.
And most importantly: after siderat, the soil does not need to be dug. The siderats performed this procedure for you. The soil after them is airy, saturated with oxygen and nutrients in a form accessible to plants, it is disinfected and practically does not need additional anti-infection treatments. Naturally, in 1 year of using siderates such global changes will not occur, but after 3-4 years you will see that they work better than a shovel.
What green manure is suitable for planting in a greenhouse?
About 400 grassy annual plants can be used as green fertilizers in the open ground and in the greenhouse. In practice, summer residents use about 20 crops to achieve the following results:
- for loosening the soil;
- receiving mulch;
- increase fertility;
- soil disinfection;
- pest protection.
Sidereal crops in the greenhouse can be sown year-round, but there are several rules, compliance with which increases their effectiveness:
- can not be used as siderates plants of the same family with the main greenhouse culture;
- green manure must be mowed before budding, otherwise they will become ordinary weeds.
The table shows the beneficial properties of siderates and their compatibility with main plants (Table 1). Using the material from the table will allow you to choose the optimal combination of the main culture and siderate, which will reduce the acidity of the soil, increase natural fertility, disinfect the soil, eliminate pests.
Table 1. Description of the most common types of green manure for greenhouses
|Siderat||Beneficial features||The culture|
|Mustard, spring and winter rape, rape, oilseed radish||Weeds and pathogens are suppressed, the soil is well loosened, wireworms, slugs are destroyed, enriched with phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and organic matter. Oil radish additionally destroys root rot, nematode. Nematodes settle under rape. In case of contaminated soil, it is better to sow rapeseed mixed with mustard. The mixture will stop the reproduction of the nematode.||Tomatoes, sweet peppers, eggplant, cucumbers, zucchini, carrots, parsley, dill|
|Oats, rye, barley, annual ryegrass, wheat, blue grass||They increase the content of organic matter, the moisture permeability of the soil, the content of nitrogen and potassium, and destroy the nematode. Oats and rye cleanse the soil of fungi and infections, including late blight. Under the rye, a wireworm settles. To expel him, it is better to use this siderat in a mixture with mustard and rape.||Tomatoes, sweet peppers, eggplant, cucumbers, zucchini,|
|Buckwheat||Reduces acidity, increases the content of phosphorus and potassium. Recommended on heavy soils.||Under all greenhouse crops|
|Vika, peas, beans, lupine, clover, alfalfa, lentils||Increase the content of organic matter and nitrogen in the upper layers of the soil. Well loosen the soil. Pea protects the soil from nematodes, pathogens, removes insoluble phosphates.||Tomatoes, bell peppers, eggplant, cucumbers, zucchini, radishes|
|Phacelia||Universal green manure, after which any vegetable crop develops efficiently. Sowing phacelia on one hundred square meters replaces 300 kg of manure in efficiency.||All types of vegetables grown in greenhouse conditions|
Sideral cultures can be sown separately or in mixtures. Mixtures of green manure should contain the maximum number of cereal seeds (50-60% of the total mass). When decomposed, they enrich the soil with potassium. Such crops should contain approximately equally (10-15%) vetch, white mustard, phacelia.
Vika increases the nitrogen content, and white mustard - phosphorus and, in addition, it effectively disinfects the soil from pathogenic microflora (late blight). Phacelia well suppresses weeds introduced earlier into the greenhouse, and destroys pathogenic microorganisms, contributes to soil deoxidation. Rapeseed (5%) is added to the mixture to increase green mass. Like phacelia, rapeseed destroys harmful microorganisms.
It is impossible to observe crop rotation in a greenhouse so that the return to its former place was no earlier than 3-5 years, but you can successfully calculate the crop rotation of green manure and gradually improve the soil, saturate it with the necessary elements, organic matter, disinfect it, and grow successfully against this background. necessary cultures.
If the greenhouse consists of two beds, then you can adhere to the following scheme for the use of siderates (Table 2). Over a 5-year period, 5 formulations of siderate mixtures will pass through the beds, which will help the main plants develop in good conditions and free summer residents from a number of heavy manual work.
Table 2. Scheme of crop rotation of siderates (approximate)
|year||Main culture||Mix or separate green manure (sow after harvesting the main crop|
|1||Radishes, carrots, parsley, greens (dill, parsley, etc.)||Clover, vetch spring, mustard, winter rape|
|2||Peas, beans, cucumbers||Buckwheat, mustard, phacelia, oats, vetch.|
|3||Any nightshade, including tomatoes, sweet peppers, eggplant||Lupine, clover, alfalfa. Separately - mustard, oats, barley.|
|4||Zucchini, cucumbers, greens, carrots||Mustard, oil radish, phacelia. Can be replaced with vetch-oatmeal mixture.|
|5||Greens (salads), peas, tomatoes of different ripening dates.||Vika, rape, oats or buckwheat, phacelia oats, rape. You can repeat the mixture of the first year.|
Some owners in the last month of growth and development of the main culture (for example, tomatoes in August) sow mustard under it. While the main crop gives off the last fruits, mustard holds back late blight (usually barking by this time), disinfects the soil and is ready for cutting and turning into humus. And next spring (see table 2) you can sow a vetch with oats.
Agricultural technology of growing green manure in a greenhouse
Dates for planting green manure in a greenhouse
You can sow green manure in the greenhouse in early spring (late February, March) using cold-resistant and fast-growing crops (vetch, melilot, fatseliya, rape, mustard, oil radish, oats, rye). The most cold-resistant siderates are vetch and rapeseed, which can be sown at temperatures of -5 ° C and -8 ° C, respectively. The same crops can be sown in the summer (June, July).
In autumn, in September, it is better to sow rye, oats, rape, phacelia, vetch.
Siderat sowing options
In the first method of sowing, the main culture is sown or planted after incorporation of green manure.
In the second - the main culture (seedlings) is planted in the rows of green manure. You can plant directly in the holes formed in the crop of green manure. Siderata are cut with a growth of 10-15 cm and remain on the bed like mulch.
At the third, the garden bed is divided into rows where the main crop is planted, and siderat grows in the aisles, like a backstage.
The main culture after siderats is planted in 2-3 weeks, which is associated with its decay.
Spring sowing of green manure
During the spring sowing of green manure, snow is preliminarily thrown into the greenhouse or the soil is moistened in another way. Seeds are randomly scattered on moist soil, and they are lightly embedded in the soil. If row green sowing or seedling planting is planned, it is better to loosen the top layer of soil (5-7 cm), form grooves, sow green manure, sprinkle with soil and pour warm water.
On the 3rd – 7th day, seedlings of green crops appear. The entire period before siderat mowing is necessary to keep the soil moist, which will accelerate the emergence of seedlings and the rapid growth of green mass by plants. If the height of the above-ground weight of green manure is 15-30 cm (before the buds appear), cut it off and seal it in the upper layer of soil with a Fokin plane saw or a chopper.
For better rotting, systematically water the soil, but not allowing water stagnation. After 2-3 weeks, you can plant / sow the main culture, between the rows of green manure.
Autumn sowing of green manure
Autumn sowing of green manure is most effective, especially if the greenhouse is not used in winter. After harvesting and putting the greenhouse in order, the greenhouse beds are sown by the spread method, the seeds are planted in the upper 1-3 cm soil layer, watered. If the autumn is warm, green manure will have time to form the root system and frosts will not damage the plants.
If the sowing period is missed, then frost-resistant crops should be sown - vetch, rape, rye, oats. Mustard and radish will no longer fit. Autumn sowing has its advantages. Siderat all winter works for the main culture. The roots loosen the soil, the green mass is processed into humic substances. In spring, the cut serves as a mulch, which allows you to plant the main culture earlier.
Rye and oats are not buried when cut into the soil. Greens decay on the surface of the soil, simultaneously performing the role of mulch.
Do you need fertilizers for green manure?
The question, of course, is interesting and timely. Mineral fertilizers in the early years will be necessary for foliar top dressing. Ash is effective, providing basic crops with additional micro and macro elements. Before flowering the main crop, it is possible to make nitrophoska or kemir in minimal amounts, not more than 5 g per bush of nightshade, pumpkin, 5-10 g per linear meter in the form of aqueous solutions for radishes, carrots, salads and other small crops.
To accelerate the mass germination of green manure, after sowing, the soil can be treated with biological products "Baikal EM-1", "Vostok-M". These drugs contribute to the multiplication of useful effective microorganisms that destroy the pathogenic microflora. They help the siderats to clean and disinfect the soil, to develop a large root system, which, when rotted, leaves microchannels that contribute to the enrichment of the soil with oxygen.
These drugs can be sprayed with plants during the growing season to protect against fungal and bacterial diseases. Together, green manure and biological products will provide a good quality crop of vegetable and other garden and horticultural crops without the use of chemicals.
Dear readers! Did you find answers to your burning questions? What else would you like to know about greenhouse sideration? Share your techniques for enriching nutrients and disinfecting greenhouse soils in the comments on the article or on our Forum.