How to save roses in the winter?
The safety of roses in winter should be thought of already upon their purchase. Do not buy greenhouse roses; they are often sold in spring and early summer after winter distillation. Such roses themselves may not be winter-hardy, and their stocks often do not differ in frost resistance, especially in imported roses. It is impossible to distinguish them from garden (not greenhouse) roses in appearance. The only way out is to buy seedlings from reliable suppliers. In addition, garden roses, in turn, have varieties that are more or less hardy. Many manufacturers of roses in their catalogs single out the most unpretentious roses in varietal groups of park or landscape. Such roses, in general, tolerate winters better than roses of other varietal groups, such as hybrid tea. However, there are many exceptions.
- You need to take care of the wintering of roses during planting
- What method of sheltering roses to choose?
- Protecting roses from disease during wintering
- Air-dry way to shelter roses for the winter
- Shelter of roses with a spruce
You need to take care of the wintering of roses during planting
It is necessary to take into account the dimensions of roses: it is easy to cover undersized (miniature and ground cover), and tall erect (non-spreading) heights of more than 1.2-1.5 m (semi-climbing and large-flowered climbing) are much more difficult.
To think about preserving roses in winter, you should also plant roses:
- roses growing in a group are easier to protect from frost than scattered in different places of the garden;
- fertilizers that can cause active growth of shoots at the end of summer and autumn cannot be applied to the planting pits. Nitrogen (in the form of mineral fertilizers and in the composition of humus) is better to make less than more.
Finally, for successful wintering of roses, preparing them for the next winter is very important:
- it is not necessary to cut flowers at the end of summer and autumn, this leads to the growth of new shoots, which will no longer have time to ripen by winter and die (sometimes together with branches of the previous order);
- starting from mid-summer, it is better to stop feeding roses (roses do not need so many nutrients, so spring and early summer feeding with complex mineral or organic fertilizers is enough for the whole season);
- it is necessary in October (for central Russia), starting from the bottom, to gradually clean the roses from the leaves (they are separated from the branches by moving from top to bottom and together with the already fallen leaves, they are removed away from the roses; it is best to burn them to prevent the spread of pathogenic fungi spores) .
In principle, there are no ideal ways to protect roses for all occasions. Much depends on the capabilities of the gardener and the availability of covering materials for him, on specific weather conditions, on the frost resistance of roses, their size and ability to bend to the ground.
What method of sheltering roses to choose?
The gardener himself must decide which of the shelter methods to apply, but for this he needs to keep in mind the following considerations:
- in the cold season (and not only in winter) roses can be damaged by frost, affected by pathogenic fungi, branches can break down both during shelter and under the weight of snow;
- a large, well-prepared winter rose in the middle lane will almost never die, even without shelter (the exception is “black” frosts, when not only the aboveground, but also the underground part of the bush can freeze due to lack of snow);
- the rose that emerged from wintering with large losses of the aerial part weakens greatly, and already the next winter may be the last for it (the plant does not have time to grow the aerial part during our short northern summer); the gardener's task is not just to keep the rose alive, but to preserve, if possible, its aboveground part;
- in autumn, roses gradually prepare themselves for frost (according to my observations, the critical temperature for hybrid tea roses in the middle of September is -5 ° C, in mid-October -7 ° C, in the first half of November -10 ° C, in the second half of November - about -15 ° C and even -18 ° C);
- pruning roses (not only for the sake of flowers, but also for shelter for the winter), premature wrapping of bushes not only stop the natural process of preparing roses for frost, but can also completely deprive the plants of their tempering, especially if there are many warm days in the fall; the rose recklessly comes to life, even a slight frost can destroy it;
- if you leave the fruit in the summer after flowering in the late summer, the plant no longer “thinks” of a new growth of shoots, the buds do not wake up, and such a rose hibernates better.
Protecting roses from disease during wintering
Diseases pose no less than frosts a threat to roses - in late winter and early spring, under the shelters at a small positive temperature, a dangerous fungal disease - an infectious burn of roses - actively develops on the branches. Dark brown spots appear on the trunks. Expanding, they lead to the death of the entire branch above the lesion. If you open roses in a timely manner, without waiting for the snow to melt, you can interrupt the period favorable for the development of the disease. This is the main thing.
It also helps spraying roses before shelter with fungicides (for example, iron or copper sulfate). In addition, it is nice to spud roses with clean sand in the fall to shelter the lower part of plants from frost and protect against diseases. It is impossible to spud with earth taken from under a rose, since it can contain many "unfriendly" bacteria and fungal spores.
It is also bad to spud with peat and sawdust - freezing, they create a shield insurmountable for heat by spring. In this case, the rose may die due to the fact that in the spring under the sun the aerial part quickly awakens, and the roots are still in a dormant state for several weeks in cold soil. By the time the roots are finally warmed up, the aerial part may die.
Air-dry way to shelter roses for the winter
Knowing all these difficulties, you can consciously approach the choice of shelter for roses. The most reliable (though the most material-intensive) is considered an air-dry method of shelter. A canopy of boards or shields is arranged above the roses, capable of withstanding the pressure of snow. The canopy rests on columns of brick or logs dug into the ground. From above it is covered with non-woven material, and even better - with a plastic film, you can old (it is easier to open it in the spring for ventilation). The edges of the film are pressed to the ground with stones, bricks.
The height of the canopy should be such that it is possible to bend the branches of roses, preventing them from breaking — for large climbing roses with long branches of 60-80 cm, for the rest - 30-60 cm. In severe frosts, it is necessary to add snow to the shelter from the ends (without exposing, of course, the earth around other valuable plants). In the beginning and mid-March, I clean the snow from the flooring, this allows me to get away from temperatures that are favorable for the development of a rose burn. In addition, the film can be lifted from the ends for ventilation.
Roses under an air-dry shelter winter (if everything was done on time) with virtually no lunges and losses of the aerial parts.
Now about the "on time." It is necessary to cover roses when a cooling is expected (usually this happens at night) below -10 ... -12 ° С. As a rule, this is the second half of November. It is useless to shelter from the early (September and October) frosts - they will not damage the roses, and the roses will not become quenched due to early shelter.
The air-dry method ideally protects rose bushes from damage - both during shelter in the fall and under the weight of snow in winter and spring. It protects against frost very well. But from an infectious burn - not always. The fact is that in spring I really do not want to open roses when they are solidly covered, and even more so when the snow has not yet melted. Meanwhile, in February-March, under the shelter, there were already small positive temperatures favorable for the harmful fungus.
To protect roses from the disease if their opening is delayed, not bad:
- boards for sheltering roses annually treated with an antiseptic;
- secateurs blade when working with roses often disinfect (potassium permanganate, alcohol, over fire, etc.);
- in the autumn, spud roses with clean sand (protects the lower part of the bush, more susceptible to disease);
- mulch the soil in the fall with spruce branches or any other mulch (isolation from possible sources of fungal spores);
- collect and burn fallen rose foliage throughout the growing season.
In general, an air-dry shelter is best for preserving roses in winter. However, it involves the timely closure and opening of roses, a large investment of time and materials. Not everyone can afford it and would prefer a simpler way of shelter, sacrificing the reliability of wintering.
Shelter of roses with a spruce
The following can be suggested for them. Roses shelter in late October - early November, after sniffing the lower leaves. Branches bend to the ground, covered with a single layer of spruce spruce branches. This layer prevents the roses from touching the ground, but freely passes the heat of the earth to the roses. On top of roses lay a layer of spruce branches and non-woven material. This layer of lapnik protects the nonwoven fabric and at the same time the hands from the needles of roses. In addition, he warms the roses.
In order to protect roses from breakage, before folding it is useful to lay under the branches of a suitable size of the lining (see. Fig.). They protect the branches from damage to the base. To keep the branches bent, they are nailed or used some kind of load. Sometimes there is enough weight of spruce branches. Non-woven material is pressed around the perimeter with stones. As always, it is useful to spud the base of the bush with sand in advance.
For simplicity, the figure shows the shelter of one rose, but in the same way, you can immediately cover a group of roses. It is more difficult only to bend adjacent roses at the same time.
It is necessary to open roses in the spring gradually. And remember that at this time they can be damaged:
- from severe return frosts (with too early and abrupt removal of insulation);
- from an infectious burn (if, on the contrary, the insulation is removed too late);
- from sunburn (if the shade is removed before the soil has warmed up).
Roses begin to open in central Russia, usually in the first half of March (depending on the weather). At the same time, they clear off part of the snow and open the shelter film for airing the roses. After full disclosure, the roses are pruned. But this is another stage in the life of roses.
Of course, the preservation of roses in winter largely depends on good luck (or rather, on the weather). But it depends only on you whether you risk half your roses or only one or two percent.
"How to save roses in the winter",