It has long been believed in Germany that garlic is endowed with miraculous power. Against sorcerers, they rubbed their soles and chest in the heart. In Hungary, garlic heads were placed under the mattresses of newborns in order to scare away evil spirits with a strong smell. Some peoples wore garlic on their neck on a string to prevent disease. In folk medicine, they treat wounds and ulcers, and the inhalation of vapors is effective for tuberculosis and colds. Science explains this by the presence of volatile, killing microorganisms. Although phytoncides are found in many vegetables, garlic is a champion among them: crushed cloves can kill microorganisms for more than 200 hours (only 8 onions). Therefore, in offices, classrooms, classrooms, do not cut onions, but garlic.
There are winter and spring forms of this plant, shooting and non-shooting, as well as intermediate forms with weak shooting. But what if winter forms are planted in spring and spring forms in autumn? Let's try to figure it out.
Among winter crops there are shooting and non-shooting forms, and among spring crops there are mainly non-shooting forms. Spring crops are usually less productive, but have good keeping quality. They can be planted in the fall, but the yield will be lower than during spring planting.
All varieties in the domestic Plant Register are winter crops in particular, such as Kharkov violet and Pobeda (bred at the Kharkov Institute of Vegetable and Melon Growing), Sofievsky and Prometey (bred at Uman National Agrarian University), Donetsk violet, and Starobelsky local. Lviv Agrarian University developed varieties Spas (zoned in 1999) and Leader (in 2000). Russian selection is represented by varieties Yubileiny Gribovsky and Parus.
Shooting forms are more winter-hardy and sharp, they can be propagated by air bulbs (which allows you not to spend cloves - valuable food products). It is now believed that propagating with cloves is impractical. The disadvantage is that you need to remove the arrows, otherwise the yield will sharply decrease. The removed arrow can be boiled, fried - it tastes like mushrooms to taste. All of the above winter varieties are shooter.
Non-firing forms used to be inferior for two reasons: there are no air bulbs, which means that most of the crop was spent on planting material. Secondly, there is no tasty arrow. That was until 1983, when the first non-shooting winter variety Ukrainian White Gulaypolsky appeared, which differs from other varieties in shape, keeping quality, frost resistance, taste with a pleasant sharpness. Over time, varieties Saksky and Odessa 13 were bred.
You can find out what kind of garlic you will have by the appearance of the onion. The riflemen have 1 ring of 4-12 cloves. In non-firing, they are 14-30 or more, are arranged in a spiral, smaller. When cultivating non-shooting forms, get rid of the need to remove arrows. A typical mistake of vegetable growers is to plant garlic from other regions. Unadapted to conditions, it reduces performance. So, Ternopil garlic will produce a low yield in the Kiev region. Therefore, for planting, choose only local forms.
Spring forms in our conditions are found only in the form of local populations (not even included in the Register), where folk experience determined their optimal planting period. As a rule, they are non-shooting. Their positive quality - spring planting, solves the problem of freezing in winter. Although their productivity is lower than winter crops, under unfavorable conditions in winter, when winter crops were freezing, spring crops yielded good yields more than once. Therefore, do not be surprised to find local forms for spring culture. But in your area, you need to approach its cultivation with special care.
The agricultural technology of garlic is simple. Before planting, dig a site, introducing humus, sawdust. This loosens the soil, which is important for the shallow roots of this crop. Cloves are best divided into fractions - small, medium and large. This will give uniform seedlings with the same plant height. The depth should be 7–9 cm. If the soil is less freezing, the root will be exposed (it will be necessary to spud). Aisle - 45 cm. The distance between the teeth - 5-6 cm, for small fractions it can be reduced.
Shooting varieties are best propagated by air bulbs. Leave the arrow on 2-3 plants. From a bulb weighing only 0.01-0.1 g, a single tooth will grow, weighing 1-4 g. Plant them next year. Although it will take a year (and it will take 2 years to wait), this tooth tooth will increase the mass of a planted air bulb already 40-100 times (!), And next year will give a very high yield. Use this method in your garden, you will not regret it.
Shooting forms at first do not require a lot of nutrients. But the need increases with the formation of arrows, which is a critical phase of crop formation. Remove the arrows at the beginning of their formation, and feed the plants with complex fertilizers. Aisle systematically loosen. It remains to wait for the tops to turn yellow, dig out the garlic and dry.
And finally: the optimal time for planting garlic is the beginning of October, but this can be done later, as long as the soil does not freeze.