The main crop is removed. The beds are empty. Colds are coming. It is necessary to prepare it in the remaining warm season, so that in the spring a favorable period for sowing and planting is not taken up for untimely work: garbage collection, digging (if necessary), fertilizing, etc. Fertilizing in the warm season, especially organic, so that some of these fertilizers , processed by soil microflora, was available to plants from early spring. In cold weather, organic fertilizers practically do not change their qualitative composition.
- What fertilizers to apply in the fall?
- Soil preparation for autumn fertilizing
- How to apply fertilizer?
- Autumn liming of the soil
What fertilizers to apply in the fall?
Plants receive nutrients from the soil in an accessible form, but characterized by low mobility (that is, they do not go beyond the root layer along with autumn rainfall). These include phosphorus and potassium minerals from mineral ones, and ammonium forms from nitrogen ones.
Mineral fertilizers increase the effective fertility of the soil, but lower the natural and contribute to an increase in acidity, which the vast majority of garden plants cannot tolerate.
To saturate the soil with necessary fertilizers, it is best to use complex fertilizers, in which the elements are in the ratio necessary for plants. These are mainly phosphorus-potash fat, some of which are enriched with trace elements. They contain nitrogen in minimal quantities. From autumn, it is recommended to apply such fertilizers to azofoska, carboammophoska, Kemira-universal, Rost-1, Agrovitakva-AVA and others.
Natural mineral fertilizer obtained by burning tops and other wastes of garden, weeds and woody plants. Ash contains a large list of trace elements. After digging, after 3-4 years, 1-2 kg / sq. m. It is especially recommended that in the autumn fertilize with ash the cabbage beds, potatoes and other crops that need neutral soil.
The long-term application of some mineral fertilizers acidifies the soil, and sometimes with a low organic content. Therefore, in the fall, in addition to mineral fertilizers, organic fertilizers are applied in the form of fresh and ripened manure, mature compost and green fertilizers (green manure).
Organic Fertilizer Application
From autumn, humus, chicken droppings, and compost are usually added from organic fertilizers. On poor soils, fresh manure is brought up to 300-500 kg per hundred square meters. In September-October, they are scattered around the designated area and embedded in the soil.
Typically, the site is left for a year under clean steam, systematically harvesting weeds and in hot, dry weather, watering with average water standards. These measures are necessary to improve the processing of fresh manure in a more acceptable form for plants - humus.
Concentrated Organic Fertilizer. Entered directly under the root, the fertilizer causes a burn to the root system of plants. For top dressing, bird droppings are bred and used as a liquid solution for top dressing. In solid form, it, like manure, is used for autumn digging, once every 2-3 years. The application rate ranges from 200-250 kg / hectare.
Compost is an organic fertilizer obtained from the waste of plants and animals with the addition of soil and (if any) peat. It is especially needed on depleted lands, as it promotes the activation of beneficial soil microflora, which processes organics into humus.
On organically rich soils, compost is used only for top dressing, and on depleted and autumn soil preparation. Usually for digging use from 3 to 5 kg per square. area under all garden crops.
Green fertilizers, or green manure
Green fertilizers, or siderates, are also organic fertilizers. Winter siderata are sown after harvesting the main crop in the autumn for digging or leaving until spring soil preparation. They are used on heavy, merging soils for loosening (rapeseed, oats, phacelia, mustard, rape and others).
Some siderates not only loosen the soil, but at the same time increase soil fertility (mustard with legumes, vetch-axle mixture, melilot, alfalfa, vetch, peas, beans, etc.).
Siderates serve as good soil disinfectants for scab, root rot, wireworm, and nematodes. A mixture of rapeseed-mustard-radish-oats cultures with the addition of marigold and calendula is sown. You can sow oil radish with mustard with the addition of nasturtium and calendula and other combinations of crops.
Myriads of living creatures live in the soil, which process organic matter into the humus that plants need, supplying them with accessible forms of nutrients. In winter, the vast majority of the “living” substance of the soil freezes, and in cold weather stops its “work”, so they prepare the soil for spring in the warm autumn period.
Soil preparation for autumn fertilizing
Autumn soil preparation provides a greater supply of oxygen and moisture to the soil, which plants need in spring. In addition to the best water-air regime, fluffy, loose beds will warm up faster in the spring sun.
Any kind of work in the garden can be simplified. Just after harvesting, scatter humus, manure, compost, leave weeds and dig everything in late autumn, adding phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. Whether or not such preparation will be of great benefit is a question requiring the right solution. You can advise the following:
If the garden is divided into beds and there is a cultural turnover map, then each garden bed must be prepared separately. Rarely in cottages is the soil of the same type and equally fertile. Usually this is waste land, and even from quarrying, so all the beds do not need to be prepared equally for spring work, especially digging it deep with the turnover of the formation.
How to apply fertilizer?
Digging for autumn digging
If the soil is clayey, loamy, compacting during the winter period, this must be loosened in the fall by adding manure, humus, and other organic waste (digging grass, tops, leaves, sawdust, etc.) for digging.
In the presence of organic fertilizers, scatter them evenly across the bed and dig them to a depth of 15-20 cm. The soil will become less dense, mixed with loosening organic matter. Aerobic bacteria, earthworms, and other soil animals living in the upper soil layer process most of the organics before leaving for winter rest.
Important! You can not dig up digging up to 30 cm, part of aerobics, once in a negative environment for them, will die. During the turnover of the reservoir, anaerobics will rise from the depths and also die. It is more practical and correct to work with the top 15 cm soil layer.
They make on average (if there are no other recommendations for a particular culture) 2-4 buckets of humus, 2 to 3 buckets per square meter will be enough for vermicompost. m square. In this case, in dry weather, you can water the site before digging. And when leaving under the snow, to add phosphorus-potassium fat on average 30–30 g and 20–25 g, respectively, of superphosphate and potassium sulfate, under fine-graining.
If there are no organic fertilizers, they can be replaced herbal chop. That is, the collected weeds are cut / chopped into smaller pieces and bury in the topsoil. Starting the digging, the first row is formed as a furrow up to 20 cm deep. A layer of prepared weeds, tops left over from the harvested crop is laid on the bottom 5-7 cm and they are thrown on top, not turning over, but shifting the soil layer.
The formed furrow is again filled with a section and covered with soil. During digging, you can add phosphorus-potassium fertilizers in the recommended rate for the culture. On average, from autumn 40-60 g / sq. m of superphosphate and 25-30 g of potassium salt or potassium sulfate. With this method of soil preparation, the amount of soil on the bed will increase 2 times.
A good result is provided by autumn siderates. They can be sown and dug up when a sidereal crop reaches 10 cm in height, or only the upper part is cut off and left until the spring seeding of green manure or landing in separate nests in green manure.
Loosening fertilizer application
In light in composition, loose or sandy soils, continuous digging is not necessary. You can dig individual sections with sow thistle, wheat grass and choose rhizomes. To level the soil and to loosen the already full by 10-15 cm.
If these types of soils are rich in humus, then they add organic fertilizer after 1-2-3 years, at least 2-4 buckets for crops that are in dire need of organic matter during the growing season.
With a low humus content, up to 5 buckets of half-ripened or mature humus, compost are introduced in the autumn and embedded in the topsoil. Organics will help preserve moisture in the upper layer, provide nutrition to the soil microflora, and preserve the soil structure.
Seedless weeds give abundant autumn seedlings. On light soils, they have to be destroyed 1-2 times by fine loosening, sometimes even with preliminary watering to provoke faster and more friendly shoots.
At the end of September, in the south, and in the middle zone of Russia, organic fertilizers and other organic matter may be scattered before final preparation, mineral fertilizers are added and dug up.
Autumn liming of the soil
Soils that for a long time received only mineral nutrition, as already noted, acidify over time. Acidification is especially noticeable on beets. If there are no crops or they are scanty, despite the fulfillment of all required agricultural practices, then liming is necessary.
For liming, it is better to use dolomite or lime flour. It is especially effective on magnesium depleted, sandy and sandy soils with low humus content. In the absence of dolomite flour, lime can be used for liming. Soils are usually lime after 3-5 years. Lime fertilizer is applied in August-October. Compliance with recommended dosages is mandatory.
On medium and heavy loamy soils
- with pH = 4.5 per 1 sq. m contribute 500-600 g of dolomite flour,
- on medium-acid soils with pH = 4.5-5.2, the application rate decreases to 450-500 g / sq. m
- on slightly acidic ones with pH = 5.2-5.6, the application rate is 350-450 g / sq. m
On sandy and light loam
- at pH = 4.5-4.6, the application rate is respectively 400-350 g / sq. m
- with an increase in pH = 4.8-5.0, the amount of fertilizer is 300-250 g / sq. m
- at pH = 5.2, liming is not carried out.