The vine must suffer. Pruning
- Part 1. Grapevine born to give immortality
- Part 2. Features of vineyard care
- Part 3. The vine must suffer. Pruning
- Part 4. Protection of grapes from fungal diseases
- Part 5. Protection of grapes from pests
- Part 6. Vegetative propagation of grapes
- Part 7. Grape propagation by grafting
- Part 8. Groups and grape varieties
Grapes are a perennial vine, capable of forming high yields of good quality for a long time with proper care. Every year, wild forms can give an increase in lianas up to 40 m, cultivated up to 5-10 m. Without pruning or incorrectly carried out, frost resistance of the bush decreases, berries and brushes are chopped, and the crop may not form at all. Therefore, pruning is an important agricultural technique and the yield of the vine and its safety for many years in working condition depend on its implementation. "Planned suffering" of the vines brings joy to people. The French say - the vine must suffer.
To correctly form a bush, you need to clearly distinguish between shoots that perform a specific mission on the bush.
- perennial (dark, bark exfoliates), storing,
- biennial (matured chocolate-colored bark). The future crop is laid on them,
- summer (current year), green, grow from the leaf sinuses of two-year-old shoots. It is they who carry the main leaf apparatus, inflorescences and brushes.
The vine forms 2 types of bushes:
- rodless with varieties of sleeve, fan and bowl. Sleeve - a branch located low above the ground, constantly forming fruitful vines. A fan is a bush of several sleeves. It can be formed on a trellis or in the form of a bowl on stakes. The greater distance between the bushes allows you to grow high yields. On dense landings, shorter sleeves are formed with fewer fruit links.
- standard, subdivided into 2 varieties - shtamb and cordon. A stamp is a form in which bearing arms rise above the ground. The best type to form in the southern region. Cordon is a stlan form of the stem. More suitable for the middle lane, as the proximity to the soil makes it easier to shelter bushes for the winter.
Trimming time for the formation of the bush depends on its age. Young bushes that have not entered fruiting (1-3 years) are pruned in spring. A young vine without causing extra wounds hibernates better. Pruning of fruiting bushes is best done in the fall. Autumn pruning is more convenient for a covered vineyard, which is practiced when breeding in central Russia. With the open method of growing in the southern region, autumn pruning is carried out in 2 doses. The ripened shoots are cut first, which reduces the possibility of spring frost damage and the spread of fungal diseases from unripe vines. And then in late autumn or winter, the main pruning for fruiting is carried out.
Let us consider in the article (schematically) the principle of the formation of a standardless and standardized vine bushes. These types of formation are the simplest and most often successfully used by beginners with self-pruning and vine loading.
Types of formation of a grape bush
After the seedling has taken root during the growing season of the first year of life, we pinch the young shoots and break out the weak and underdeveloped. By autumn, 1-2 young, sometimes 4 shoots remain on a young bush. We cover the base of the bush in the south with earth, in the middle lane we bend down and completely cover the shoots.
Spring 2 years during the awakening of the eyes (kidneys) we carry out the first pruning. We leave 2 well-developed shoots (you can and more) of which we will form the sleeves. We cut each vine into 2-4 buds. If the vine was cut into 4 buds, then 2 are blinded (optional). They are not needed. Of the 2 remaining buds during the growing season, we form 2 shoots, the rest are removed. In early August, pinch their tops to stop the growth and redistribution of nutrients to ripen. After the leaves fall, we cut each shoot to the length of the ripened wood. White cut - unripe wood, shoot bark is green. The matured shoot has a light chestnut bark and a green slice. Shoots cover or close only the lower part.
In the spring of the 3rd year on the overwintered vine, we leave 2 buds located closer to the base. The shoots that have grown from them will be sleeves. We tie the sleeves to the support horizontally. On each sleeve we leave 2 eyes. We develop the stems developed from them strictly vertically. They serve to form fruit units. Each fruit link consists of 2 shoots, the lowest on the sleeve. This year we leave only one fruit link. We cut the rest. In the fruit link, in turn, the lower shoot facing the outside of the bush is cut to 2-4 buds. This is a substitution escape or a substitution knot. The shoot located above is cut off by 6-8 (possible up to 12-14 more) buds in powerful bushes. This is the arrow of fruiting, on which inflorescences are formed with future fruits. Often from one point of growth 2-3 shoots develop. We leave one the most powerful, we break out the rest. By the fall of the 3rd year, the bush will consist of fruit links, one on each sleeve. We make sure that on the knot of substitution there are 2 powerful vines that grew during this vegetation - the future fruit link. We cut out the full-blown arrow, and form a new fruit link on the knot of substitution. This principle of bush formation is repeated annually.
For 4 years the grape bush is considered fully formed and now comes the period of annual pruning for fruiting according to the above principle. The number of fruit links and eyes on the fruiting arrow can vary annually, which is (in fact) the regulation of the yield of the bush. After 5-8 years, the grape bush needs rejuvenation, in which we cut off the old sleeves and form new ones from shoots located at the base of the bush or on the head (in grafted seedlings).
The basis of trimming on a sleeve, fan or bowl is the formation of sleeves with fruit links. The principle of formation of the sleeve and fruit link is described above.
The stem formation of the grape bush is used in regions with open cultivation of vines of frost-resistant varieties.
Cut the seedling planted in spring into 2 eyes, which during the growing season give 2 shoots remaining for the winter. During the autumn digging of the plot, we close the base of the bush and shoots with earth.
In the spring of the 2nd year cut the shoots. The main (more powerful) for 3 kidneys and the second spare (reserve) for 2. A more powerful shoot (it is located higher up the trunk) will be formed as a standard, and the second will be stored on the head of the bush as a reserve. During the growing season, all shoots, except the main ones, are broken. We tie the stem shoot vertically to the peg so that it does not bend. By the fall, on the standard shoot we leave 2 shoots at the wire level. We part them in different directions (we form shoulders) and we tie them to a wire. Below, all the buds, starting in spring, are blinded (the stem should be clean without shoots). Crop above. For better ripening of the vine, pinch the main shoots in August. On a knot (reserve strain) of two buds, shoots also develop during the summer, which we cut for 3-5 eyes in autumn.
On the 3rd year in spring, on the shoot-shoot 2 long shoots left from the autumn are cut off into 2 buds. We cut off everything that has grown above on the stem, and below the blind again wake up the awakened eyes. The shoots shortened by 2 buds, divorced on the sides in autumn, are tied to a wire. The previous garter can be removed with part of the escape. These are shaped shoulders, sleeves. Of these, 4 shoots are formed during the growing season. 2 on each shoulder. The left lower shoot is also shortened by 2 kidneys.
On the reserve stem we leave 1 shoot located closer to the base of the bush with 2 buds, and the second one is removed. By autumn, on this shoot from 2 buds, 2 shoots will develop which we cut off: the outer lower one by 2 buds (knot of substitution), and the second by 5-6 buds. This is a spare fruit arrow. In general, a spare fruit link (namely a spare) is obtained.
On the 4th year in spring on the sleeves of the main stem we make pruning to the fruit link. We cut the shoot closer to the base of the stem to a spare knot, leaving 2 buds each, and closer to the apex to the fruiting arrow, leaving 5-6 or more fruiting buds. There may be several such links on the sleeve. A crop is formed on the fruit bearing arrow.
All subsequent years, we carry out pruning according to the principle of the fruit link, consisting of a knot of substitution and arrows bearing fruit. The best shoots from the fruit shoots located at the base of last year’s fruit leave on the fruit link. Excess fruit links of the previous year are removed. After a year, we remove one link of the stem with sleeves. Lower the height of the bush. When rejuvenating the bush, we remove the old stamb and work with the reserve stub.
Grape bush loading
In home gardening, it makes no sense to apply complex calculations using formulas to determine the load of the bush. This method is suitable for large plantations, and is used by professionals. In the practice of home viticulture it is much easier to use the method of comparative load of the fruit arrow. In our calculations, we start from 4 years, which is practically the first year of the bush loading. On each sleeve we leave 1-2 fruit links. In the fall we look at the condition of the bush. Short internodes with small brushes mean that the bush was overloaded. So, next year on the fruiting arrow we leave 1-2 eyes less than in the previous one. If there were 5-7, then leave 5-6 kidneys. If a lot of new shoots appeared on the head of the bush during the growing season, especially fatty tops, then the bush was underloaded. Under the future crop on the fruiting arrow, increase the number of eyes by 1-3. That is, instead of 5-7, we leave 7-9 eyes or completely leave one more fruit link.
- Part 1. Groups and grape varieties