Model silhouettes of betel betel palm
The genus of areca palm trees is represented by incredibly elegant plants, the main advantage of which is the beauty of the silhouettes. In spite of the fact that in our country the chrysalidocarpus palm is often called a completely different and by its nature and industrial value palm, real arecs are recognized at first sight. They can not be ranked among the most popular indoor plants, but in many ways they are one of the easiest to grow large palm stars. Areca has many advantages, and there are practically no shortcomings, with the exception of the love of moisture. This palm tree deserves much more popularity and an introduction to interiors as major accents.
Undeservedly forgotten areca catechu and her palm sisters
Betel palm tree, which is famous for its nutty fruits, from which the legendary betel nut is mined, retains its beneficial properties even when grown indoors. This is one of the best air-purifying plants, absorbing toxins and increasing oxygen content. But purely aesthetic merits of arek are many.
Areca (Areca) - large palm trees native to tropical Asia. For all without exception, a thin, non-branching stem with a smooth surface and beautiful rings left from fallen leaves becomes noticeable only at the age of. Young areca seem more like a bunch of luxurious leaves, and only upon closer examination can you notice their stems. The older the plant becomes, the higher the leaves rise, and in the oldest areca in natural conditions they are completely located only at the top of the shoots.
In young areca at the base of the stem, on the surface of the soil you can see a kind of fruit, from which the leaves grow. It can never be injured: over time, the fetus separates itself when the palm exhausts all the reserves of the nutrients it contains.
Leaves are the main advantage of plants. Curving arcuate, they create surprisingly beautiful lines, sit on thick but short petioles, arranged alternately and, like most palms, cirrus. Belt-like or lanceolate, narrow and hard lobes of large wai leaves, due to the parallel venation and glossy surface, seem corrugated, surprisingly elegant. The leaf fractions of the areca are crested apart from the central rachis.
In indoor culture, areca does not bloom, and even in botanical gardens and greenhouses it is almost impossible to wait for the release of cob inflorescences located below the crown in old leaf scars and reaching almost 1 m in length.
Out of 10 natural varieties of areca, only 3 species are used in room culture. Moreover, the symbol of all plants has long been Areca Catechu (Areca catechu) - a surprisingly elegant palm tree, better known as betel palm. It grows up to 20 m in nature, and in room culture it is limited to a maximum of 3 m in height, gradually forming a trunk with a diameter of several tens of centimeters and releasing very long, elegant arcuate sheets, the length of which can reach 1.5-2 m. Areca Catechu has a number of decorative forms. The most popular is the dwarf longicarpa.
In addition to areca catechu, there are also yellowing areca (Areca lutescens, today retrained in a different type of palm tree - Gioforba Indica (hyophorbe indica kind Gioforba (Hyophorbe)) and three-stalk areca (Areca triandra) The latter is a plant up to 2 m high with a thin trunk and atypically straight leaves up to 1.5 m long. Individual segments of cirrus vai can reach 1 m in length (and, moreover, they are quite wide, sometimes up to 5 cm). This palm, unlike the rest of the areca, can produce not one, but 2-3 stems.
The yellowing areca is medium-sized, with a thick stem and arcuately curving leaves up to 1.5 m long with very densely arranged segments, distinguished by geometric rigor.
Areca care at home
Arecs, both in their appearance and in the characteristics of growing, are rightly called typical palm trees. In order to grow this plant, it is enough to know at least the basics of caring for any representative of these indoor giants. One of the main advantages of the culture is its adaptability to both lighting and normal room temperature. All that is needed for success is to provide areca with at least minimal air humidity and constant substrate moisture.
The only difficulty is to choose a suitable place for areca. This palm tree is for spacious rooms, rooms with a sufficiently high ceiling, which emphasizes space and brings elegant aristocracy to any setting.
Areca is a poisonous culture, but the greatest danger is its fruits, which in indoor conditions are not tied. Leaves can be toxic only when used internally and for pets. But transplantation and other procedures do not require absolutely no precautions.
Lighting for areca catechu
Areca catechu, like the other two species of areca, even in room culture remains a photophilous plant. It is best to provide a location with bright diffused lighting for this palm. Palm tree is able to withstand direct sunlight only in the evening and morning hours, but not more than 1-2 hours. The most sun-fearful are young palm trees aged 1 to 6 years, which from the bright light receive severe sunburn and are very poorly restored. But on the other hand, areca respond well to seasonal light reduction in winter and do not suffer too much if you do not have the opportunity to move the palm to a more illuminated place. In the shadow of the areca, the catechu does not grow.
In order to succeed in growing areca and uncover the beauty of their foliage, you need to regularly turn the plants in relation to the light source, as this palm is light-dependent and its crown turns towards the sun. If you regularly open the pot about 1 time per week, always moving in one direction, you will form a uniform, surprisingly elegant crown and achieve an expressive silhouette of arched leaves.
Comfortable temperature mode for arete catechu
The temperature regime for arek should be as warm as possible. This is one of the most heat-loving palm trees, which feels better the higher the air temperature. The ideal temperature range in regions with harsh winters for areca can be achieved only in summer. This palm feels most comfortable at an air temperature of 30 degrees and above. But at the same time, you should not be afraid of this nature of the palm. Areca catechu adapts well to the usual room temperature range.
The main thing that its owners should take care of is to protect the plant from temperature drops below 18 degrees Celsius and from temperature jumps (especially in the cold season). Areca actually has no rest period; it does not need to lower the temperature in winter even by a few degrees. The warmer the conditions, the better.
Despite the fact that these palms respond well to fresh air, they must be protected from drafts, especially during cold airing. But the room itself, in which this palm tree is located, must be ventilated as often as possible.
Watering and humidity for arete catechu
For areca, it is necessary to provide regular care, consisting mainly of system irrigation. This palm tree reacts very poorly not only to constant waterlogging, but also to one-time excessive watering. However, areca is equally strongly disliked by dampness and the slightest drying of the substrate. For this palm tree, it is necessary to carry out regular water procedures, be sure to check the degree of drying of the substrate. The soil in the containers should dry to a depth of 2-3 cm, after which you can carry out the next watering.
But the most difficult moment in irrigating areca catechu is the selection of the water itself. This palm most negatively from the family reacts to hard water. For areca, it is best to use not just standing, but rain, distilled or melt water. If there is no possibility to use super-soft water, then a few drops of lemon juice or any natural fruit vinegar should be added to water for irrigation, which has been standing for at least 3 days, to soften.
Areca will not die in normal room conditions and tolerates even dry air relatively well, but it invariably affects the attractiveness of plant leaves. For a palm tree, it is necessary to provide conditions with at least average humidity indicators, which are easy to maintain by simply spraying the foliage. If it is possible to install humidifiers, Areca will thank you with an impeccable gloss of leaves and a more saturated color.
Betel palm dressings
Fertilizers for areca catechu and its relatives are applied not only during spring and summer, but throughout the year. For this palm tree, it is enough to carry out standard dressing with a frequency of 1 time in 2 weeks in the active period and 1 time per month in autumn and winter. Comprehensive universal fertilizer or special mixtures for palm trees are best suited for areca.
Cutting palm trees from the genus Arek is strictly prohibited. Pruning leaves can cause plants to simply die. Even fading, too affected leaves need to be shortened only to healthy tissues, leaving a thin rim of dry areas in front of them. Cutting whole leaves due to the deep location of the vagina can lead to disastrous consequences, not to mention the spread of diseases.
Areca transplant and substrate
The substrate for Areca catechu is very easy to select. Like most palm trees, it needs a moisture-permeable, nutritious and fairly coarse fiber substrate. A distinctive feature of the palm is that it develops better in slightly acidic soils, but soil with a neutral reaction is quite acceptable for it under the condition of water quality control.
It is best to select a ready-made substrate for palm trees for areca or use any independently prepared universal mixture with additives of bone meal, coarse peat, pine bark, charcoal or other loosening materials. For example, a mixture based on sod land is ideal for areca, to which half of the sheet soil and peat were added and half as much sand and humus.
Areca catechu can be transplanted exclusively in the spring, at the very beginning of active growth, during a sharp increase in the length of daylight hours. Even young palm trees are not transplanted annually, but only as necessary. A signal that the palm should increase capacity is the filling of the substrate with the roots.
When transplanting, it is necessary to handle the earthen lump extremely carefully, try to avoid contact even with small roots and carefully preserve the entire soil lump almost untouched. The key to transplanting is to create a high drainage layer at the bottom of the pot. When planting, make sure that the root neck of the palm remains at the same level. In no case should it be deepened, so consider the shrinkage of the soil.
If you bought areca planted in a pot of several plants to enhance bushiness, then in no case do not separate the plants. Any palm can die as a result of trauma to even a small part of the roots, and separation with serious injuries will even lead to the risk of losing the entire group. In the future, it will be necessary to grow areca also in a tight group, without separation.
After transplanting, areca needs a period of smooth adaptation. Before resuming the signs of plant growth, it is necessary to hold at least a few days in hotter conditions, shading, with a stable average humidity and pay special attention to the stability of the humidity of the substrate.
Areca diseases and pests
Areca catechu, like all other forms, is quite sensitive to indoor pests. Under favorable conditions or in the vicinity of diseased plants, it can become a victim of a mealybug, whitefly, spider mite and especially annoying scale insects. Plants are very important to inspect regularly, because only the identification of pests at an early stage will avoid serious injuries that threaten the death of palm trees. At the first signs of pests, it is necessary to start using insecticides, since the mechanical removal of insects from the leaves of areca is not very productive.
Of the diseases, root rot, with which they are struggling with a significant correction of care, is the most dangerous for all arecs. An emergency transplant for a palm tree is unacceptable and always leads to death.
Common problems in growing areca:
- drying of the tips of the leaves due to dry air, drying of the substrate or low temperatures;
- leaf wilting, discoloration and stunting in poor light;
- leaf browning with excessive moisture of the substrate.
Areca propagation due to extreme sensitivity to rhizome injuries and poor transplant tolerance can be done exclusively by seed. At the same time, purchased seeds do not always germinate. They can be sown only during spring or summer, in a substrate specially designed for palm trees, having previously moistened it with a spray gun and be sure to cover the crops with glass or film. The main conditions for germination are heat and stable humidity.