Physalis, he is the Peruvian gooseberry (so named for the taste, slightly reminiscent of gooseberries), he is also earthen cherry, he is also a strawberry tomato. By planting physalis in your area, you will in any case be guaranteed crops. Physalis has two edible forms: vegetable and berry (strawberry).
PhysalisLatin name Physalis - the largest genus of herbaceous plants of the Solanaceae family (Solanaceae), often compared to tomatoes. People call it the emerald berry or earthen cranberries (although it has nothing to do with cranberries), Peruvian gooseberries, earthen cherries, strawberries.
Vegetable Physalis (Physalis philadelphica) Is a type of physalis of Mexican origin. The natives call this culture "tomato" and "milomat", i.e. mexican tomato.
Berry species - physalis of South American origin, these include Physalis Peruvian (Physalis peruviana) and Physalis Strawberry (Physalis pubescens).
The fruit of the vegetable physalis is a fleshy berry of yellow-green or yellow-orange color, similar to a tomato. The fruits taste good, they are consumed both raw and processed. If the fruits are harvested unripe, they can be stored all winter (similar to flashlights in orange cases).
Physalis is perfectly cultivated on the same soils on which tomatoes can grow and cultivate. In appearance, the physalis bush is quite high (80-100 cm), slender, similar to a nightshade bush.
From each physalis bush you can get at least 2-3 kg of fruits. Fruits of a pleasant specific taste, from them you can cook many dishes and culinary products. In addition, the fruits of physalis have healing properties. It is especially recommended to consume them for those who suffer from chronic kidney diseases (there is an opinion that the stones resolve in this case).
In addition to the vegetable and berry forms, there is a decorative Physalis (Physalis vulgaris - Physalis alkekengi), or Chinese lantern, it winters well in our conditions, growing annually from rhizomes located not deep underground.
Physalis plants have a highly branching (up to 12 branches) reclining (in the vegetable group) or creeping (in the berry) stem 60-120 cm long. The leaves are simple oval with serrated edges (in the berry group - slightly corrugated). The flowers are solitary in the axils of the branches, resembling in shape a small bell of a yellowish color with brown spots at the base. The fruit is a multi-seeded rounded berry enclosed in a parchment cup.
100-200 fruits are formed on the plant. Vegetable physalis fruits are large:
- Soil Gribovsky - 40-60 g;
- Early Moscow - 50-80 g;
- Confectionery - 40-50 g;
- Large-fruited - 60-90 g.
The berry physalis of the Strawberry variety 573 has a small berry - 6-10 g.
From seedlings to ripening with the seedling method of cultivation in vegetable physalis 90-100 days pass, in berry physalis - 10-20 days more. The fruiting of physalis is stretched for 1-1.5 months, since the plant shrubs and grows to frost, and at each branch, a flower and a fruit are formed again.
In relation to environmental factors, vegetable physalis is close to tomato, but compared with it it is more cold-resistant, drought-resistant and less photophilous. Its seeds germinate at a temperature of +10 .. + 12 ° C, but in berry seeds - at +15 ° C and above. The optimum temperature for the growth and development of physalis is + 15..20 ° C.
Physalis grows on all soils, with the exception of strongly acidic, saline, and waterlogged. On heavy fertile soils, physalis can yield a much higher yield than on sandy, especially slightly fertile soils, although fruit ripening in the second case occurs earlier. High drought tolerance is associated with the development of a more powerful root system than that of tomato. As a shade-tolerant plant, physalis feels quite comfortable between rows of other crops, and the increased cold resistance of vegetable physalis allows it to be promoted to the northern regions.
For physalis in the garden, the same sites are chosen as for tomato placed after vegetable crops grown on fresh manure (cucumber, cabbage). Please note that in the predecessors of physalis there should not be solanaceous, otherwise you can’t avoid unilateral depletion of the soil and the transmission of the same diseases.
Physalis seedlings are planted in open ground after frost, a week before planting tomato seedlings or at the same time. Seedlings are planted at the age of 55-60 days from sowing seeds. Planting plans for physalis in the open ground and under small-sized film shelters with the free development of a bush of 70x70 cm (vegetable) and 60x60 (berry).
In greenhouses with a garter to stakes or a vertical trellis, physalis is placed according to the scheme 70x50-60 cm (vegetable) and 70x30-40 cm (berry). Wells are made at the intersection of marker lines, water is poured into them, and after absorption of moisture, 300-500 g of compost are added to the wells. In sunny weather, seedlings are planted in the afternoon, in cloudy - at any time convenient for the gardener. After planting, it is tightly squeezed with earth and not watered on top so that a crust does not form.
During the growing season, the soil is kept loose and free of weeds. Physalis is grown without pinching and pinching. The stronger the branching plants, the more fruits are formed on them. The fruits are harvested right up to the first frosts, as the plants withstand temperature drops to -2 ° C and continue to bear fruit even at zero temperature. Gather fruits as they mature, when the cup begins to dry out.
Fallen fruits can deteriorate; for long-term storage, they can be removed slightly immature. In a well-ventilated warm room, physalis fruits can be ripened and stored for at least 2-3 months. In damp rooms, especially when stored in a heap, they quickly decay and become unsuitable for eating.
Before processing, the fruits of vegetable physalis are blanched to remove adhesive from them. If the fruits of vegetable physalis can be left to ripen, then the fruits of berry should be picked only mature.
The yield of physalis in open and insulated soil is 2-3 kg / m² (vegetable) and 0.5-1 kg / m² (berry). In greenhouses, the yield is 1.5-2 times higher.
Propagation of physalis
Physalis is propagated by seed. You can sow them directly into the ground, but in the midland the plant is best grown through seedlings. I must say that the seeds of varietal berry physalis are not quite easy to find - their assortment is small and not very diverse. In addition, you can’t be sure that you bought exactly what you need - with the names of many types and varieties of berry physalis (and, therefore, with seeds), there is still some confusion.
Growing physalis, take into account its size and maturity. For example, physalis peruvian (berry form) - a plant is vigorous (up to 2 m), warm and photophilous. 130-140 days pass from seedlings to the first harvest, therefore its seeds are sown on seedlings in the middle - the end of February. The plant is transferred to a permanent place (best of all - in a film greenhouse) at the end of May. When picking and planting, it is advisable to deepen the seedlings to the bottom sheet. No more than two plants are placed on 1 m² of land.
When forming, pinch all the side shoots below the first bud. Above the first bud, the plant is not pinched. Peruvian physalis is watered until the end of July as well as tomatoes: once every 6-7 days, in the late afternoon, avoiding water getting on the leaves. From the beginning of August, watering is stopped - so that the leaves do not grow anymore and the fruits are tied faster. Physalis is ripe if the "lanterns" have turned yellow. The berries inside turn orange. The fruits are difficult to separate from the bush, you have to take on a knife. After collection, they are dried together with “flashlights” and stored in a well-ventilated place at a temperature of +1 to 15 ° C. If everything is done correctly, the crop will be stored for several months.
Raisin physalis (strawberry physalis) has smaller fruits than Peruvian (about 1-2 g), and the plant itself is small (up to 40 cm), unpretentious. The crop ripens 100-110 days after emergence, so the seeds for seedlings are sown in mid-March. When picking, deepen to the cotyledons. Seedlings are transferred to a permanent place, in open ground, in late May - early June, preferably in a warm, protected place. 6-8 plants are placed on 1 m².
Raisin Physalis is dispensed with; it does not need to be formed. Watering is the same as Peruvian, the only difference is that watering is stopped in mid-August. Ripe fruits showered from the bush. Very often, not ripened also fall off - they need to be held for 10-15 days in room conditions. With proper storage, the fruits will lie for 4-5 months. All physalises give abundant self-seeding every year and are able to spread throughout the site.
Physalis can be sown before winter, it is not damaged by pests and diseases, it is colder than other vegetables from the same family of nightshade, drought-resistant.
Despite the fact that physalis has long been well known in culture, it still remains an exotic vegetable and is little cultivated by our gardeners. Meanwhile, the physalis crop can be obtained in any (even the most unfavorable) year, since it is practically not affected by any diseases and pests. Even the worst enemy of all Solanaceae is the Colorado potato beetle, and for some reason the physalis prefers to bypass it.