We fight with rust
Plant rust is a common common disease of many plants, caused by rust fungi and characterized by the formation of pustules of various shapes and sizes on the affected organs, from which a “rusty” powder consisting of fungal spores precipitates upon cracking.
Rust - a disease caused by rust fungi, for example, of the genus Phragmidium or Puccinia.
It is expressed in the appearance of orange-brown tubercles on the upper surface of the leaf, and pustules, oval or round, are visible on the back of the leaf. Gradually, spots turn into stripes, leaves turn yellow and fall off.
Symptoms of the lesion are convex concentric spots or stripes of usually rusty-brown color on the underside of leaves, less often on petioles and stems of plants. On the upper side of the sheet they are projected with light yellow spots. Later, velvety sporulation pads of mushroom sporulation form on the underside of the leaves. Rust disease causes increased transpiration of plants (i.e. evaporation of moisture), and with severe damage - drying and falling of leaves.
Pathogens are carried by wind or insects. The disease occurs locally..
Cereals are affected, industrial crops, ornamental plants, forest tree and shrub species, wild herbs. Pathogens Rust plants develop on the aerial parts of plants, feed on the contents of only living cells, spread by spores.
In diseased plants, metabolism, water balance are impaired, the energy of photosynthesis is reduced, and growth is reduced. Rust of plants degrades the quality of fruits and seeds, the baking properties of wheat and rye.
Most harmful rust: linear cereals (causative agent of Puccinia graminis), brown wheat (P. triticina, intermediate plants - cornflower and hazel), brown rye (P. dispersa, intermediate plants - curvedflower and blush), yellow cereals (P. striiformis), dwarf barley ( P. hordei, intermediate plant - poultry), crown oats (P. coronifera, intermediate plant - buckthorn), corn (P. sorghi, intermediate plant - sour), sunflower (P. helianthi), flax (Melampsora liniusitatissimi), sugar beet (Uromyces betae), raspberries (Phragmidium rubi), pears, apple trees (pathogen Gymnosporangium sabinae, intermediate plant - ordinary northern juniper), goblet or columnar gooseberries and currants (pathogens, respectively, Puccinia ribesii caricis, Siberian rosemary pine or weymouth pine). Significant harm can be caused by bubble rust of pine (cheryanka), needles of larch and birch leaves (Melampsoridium betulae), needles of spruce (Chrysomyxa ledi or abietis), pine needles (pathogens are species of fungi of the genus Coleosporium).
- Destruction of intermediate hosts of rust, spatial isolation of crops or plantings from them.
- Deep plowing of the earth for the destruction of wintering uredo-and teletospores.
- Increasing plant resistance by carrying out agricultural activities (sowing dates, increased doses of phosphate and potassium fertilizers, etc.).
- Cleaning, sorting and dressing of seeds with fungicides (rust of sunflower, flax, sugar beet).
- Spraying with fungicides immediately after the leaves bloom with double repetition after 15 days (rust of gooseberries and currants, apple trees, pears, pine needles, spruce); zoning of rust resistant varieties.
- Removal of affected leaves and branches. Apply spraying with preparations: “topaz”, “Vectra”, “strobe”, Bordeaux mixture, cuproxate. The treatment is repeated 2-3 times after 10 days.
How do you deal with this scourge? Waiting for your advice!