The effect of temperature on tomato development
Like any other culture, tomato has its own preferences for temperature indicators. At different times in life, they are different. If these features are understood, then it becomes possible to help the culture at one stage or another of development, as well as affect the size and quality of the crop (or at least not harm). However, some knowledge will help us, gardeners and gardeners, when growing seedlings, determining the time of planting it in the ground and further care for tomatoes.
- Tomato Seed Germination
- Tomato seedlings
- From seedlings to budding
- The period of budding and flowering of tomatoes
- General optimum temperatures for tomato development
- How to influence temperature changes on tomatoes?
Tomato Seed Germination
In order for tomato seeds to sprout, a temperature of + 10 ° C is necessary. But if you raise it to +20 .. + 25 ° C, then the seedlings will appear already on the 3rd-4th day.
The first few days (2-3 days) seedlings of tomatoes need a temperature of + 10 ... + 15 ° C. This temperature regime protects them from stretching and allows you to quickly develop the root system, which is very important for this culture, since it has a small supply of nutrients in the seed.
From seedlings to budding
In the future, the most optimal conditions for the development of tomato seedlings is a combination of high lighting with daytime temperatures in the region of + 20 ... + 25 ° C and lowering it at night to + 9 ... + 12 ° C. In this case, a sharp temperature difference is unacceptable, since it provokes stress and, as a consequence, a delay in the development of plants, a change in the color of leaves to yellow with an anthocyanin or bluish tint.
The period of budding and flowering of tomatoes
The optimal conditions for this period are the temperature regime in the region of + 20 ... + 25 ° C. Sudden changes in temperature adversely affect the buds, can cause them to fall.
Lowering the temperature during the nighttime below + 13 ° C causes deformation of the anthers and reduces the quality of tomato pollen.
Undesirable during the flowering period of tomatoes and high temperatures. At thermometer values above + 30 ... + 34 ° C, pollen grains lose their viability.
Reduces the quality of pollen and poor lighting, but this is offset by an increase in its mass.
General optimum temperatures for tomato development
The optimal regime for the growth, development and fruiting of a tomato is considered to be the temperature regime within + 20 ... + 25 ° C in combination with high illumination. In low light conditions, in cloudy weather, these are already indicators + 15 ... + 18 ° C in the daytime and + 10 ... + 12 ° C at night.
An increase in temperature to + 30 ... + 31 ° C in combination with low air humidity, which is observed annually in the southern regions, inhibits the process of photosynthesis of culture, and hence the processes of plant development. Temperatures above + 35 ° C lead to starvation and death.
The lower temperature threshold for the southern varieties of tomatoes is -1 ° C, for the north - -3 ... -4 ° C in the absence of wind. It is worth mentioning that the northern varieties grow and develop in a slightly wider temperature range + 8 ... + 30 ° C, the southern + 10 ... + 25 ° C.
The lower threshold temperature of the soil, contributing to the full operation of the root system of tomatoes, is equal to + 14 ° C. The optimum temperature of the soil for full-fledged seedling vegetation is + 23 ... + 25 ° C, adult plants - + 18 ... + 22 ° C.
How to influence temperature changes on tomatoes?
Of course, that it is possible to form optimal temperature conditions for tomato only in heated greenhouses. However, relying on these indicators, it is easy to navigate that for secrets and for growing in the balcony, and for growing in unheated greenhouses, you can apply some secrets.
If you want to reduce the waiting time for tomato shoots, you need to raise the temperature to + 20 ... + 25 ° C.
It is possible to prevent the stretching of tomato seedlings immediately after germination by lowering the temperature by 2-3 days to + 10 ... + 15 ° C.
When hardening tomato seedlings before planting in the soil, one should not allow sharp temperature fluctuations, since this causes stress in plants and provokes a slowdown in their development.
Proper hardening of tomatoes ensures their resistance to a short-term temperature drop to 0 ° C.
Planting seedlings in an unheated greenhouse or under a film, you can speed up the production. However, it must be remembered that when the temperature in the film greenhouse rises above + 30 ° C in combination with high humidity, fertilization of tomatoes does not occur, the color falls off, if the fruits are formed, they are few, they are small, hollow. After such stress, normal (productive) pollen is formed only after 10-14 days.
When planting tomatoes in open ground, it is necessary to consider the optimal timing for a given area. Delayed planting, even for 10 days, already significantly reduces productivity.
In summer, in the southern regions, in order to bring down the temperature and maintain humidity in the zone of tomato bushes, you can set a shade - a camouflage net on tomato seedlings, or resort to two-line placement of the crop, which provides mutual lateral shading of the rows, which is also the prevention of fruit burns that occur at temperatures above + 34 ° C.
Mulching of tomatoes not only retains moisture in the root zone of the soil, but also slightly reduces its temperature, which is good for metabolic processes of plants.
For a tomato, not just high or low temperatures are important, but also the nature of their fluctuations. If you keep plants at a high temperature all the time, then the substances necessary for the growth and development of the substances formed by them during the day are consumed at night by breath. This slows down their development and, ultimately, affects productivity. When temperatures fluctuate with a decrease in the evening, the flowering, setting, and then ripening of tomatoes is accelerated.