Features of growing monarda
Fragrant, fragrant and such a bright monarda is rightfully considered today one of the most impressive inhabitants of flower beds. This plant is modern in its lines and in a huge palette of varieties, and if possible choose varieties of different heights and flowering times.
A wonderful honey plant and an indispensable medicinal crop can become one of the best bright summer-flowering perennials. In versatility, the monard easily competes with such favorites of landscape design as lavender, sage, catnip and veronica. But there are her and her exclusive features. After all, it is so unpretentious that it can easily fit into the concept of a garden that requires minimal care.
The growing conditions required by the monards
Monarda earned her title as the unpretentious queen of a modern garden, mainly for her ability to quickly adapt to different lighting conditions without losing an attractive and vibrant bloom. And in the sunniest areas, and where penumbra reigns equally rapidly, it pleases with bright cold color of dense foliage and medium-sized, but original fragrant whorls with a diameter of up to 8 cm from flowers attracting insects. Even in a fairly dense penumbra, the monard forms up to 100 inflorescences per season in adulthood. But at the same time, monard should not be planted in places where plants will be lit for less than 3-4 hours a day: it is shade-tolerant, but not shade-loving.
Pay attention to the wind situation on the site. In places sold by the wind, at the monarda, curtains break up, the shoots are bent, and the plant itself looks messy. For this perennial need warm protected areas with a maximum of light draft.
The choice of soil for monarda
The soil for the monarda is also quite easy to pick up. It does not tolerate acidic soils, marshy, overly compacted, neglected areas. For the rest, any, even not too fertile garden land is suitable for it. Loams and sandstones typical of flower beds are ideal for monards. Avoid overly acidic soils and better plant this beauty in neutral or alkaline soil.
Monarda is usually grown, leaving wide aisles, but close enough located the plants themselves. The optimal distance is about 30-40 cm in a row and up to 70 cm in aisles. When planting 1 bush to neighboring plants leave 40-50 cm. Before planting seedlings or monadena delenok, it is necessary to improve the soil. Dig the soil deeply, and then scatter the finished substrate for flowering crops or organic fertilizers in the form of humus and compost in the amount of about 3 kg per square meter of soil over its surface. Too acidic soil must be liming, adding 40 g of lime per square meter. Re-dig the soil or cover the fertilizer with a rake in the ground.
Carefully level the soil, make deep landing holes in it and water each one to soak it with water. Only after that, plant plants in individual pits, while maintaining the level of penetration habitual for them. Immediately after planting, the monarda needs several maintenance irrigation with an interval of 2-3 days.
Simple care for the whimsical monarda
Caring for a monard is no different from caring for other garden perennials of the so-called group of unpretentious station wagons. In fact, it comes down to rare watering, top dressing and pruning before wintering.
Watering this plant will be needed only when the drought coincides with the monarda flowering period in July and August. If the amount of natural precipitation is insufficient, all plants on flower beds and in decorative compositions suffer from a lack of moisture, then the monarda will not refuse deep supporting watering. Soak the soil with water to a depth of about 20-30 cm. Monarda is not afraid of drought during the rest of the year, and it will not die during flowering. But the beauty of inflorescences, the absence of compensatory irrigation necessarily affect, and the lack of comfortable humidity will reduce the resistance of monarda to powdery mildew.
In order for the monarda to please not only the endurance and beauty of greenery, but also bright flowering, starting from the second year of cultivation (and on poor soils - already from the first) for this crop, two dressings must be carried out:
- The first is carried out in early spring or a month after planting. For the plant, you need to make 1 tbsp. complex mineral fertilizers (nitrophosks are best) or a portion of any fertilizer for flowering plants in 10 liters of water. Such a mixture is enough for 2 square meters of soil.
- The second top dressing is carried out to improve the maturation of plants and bookmark flower buds for next year immediately after flowering. For it, use 1 tbsp sulfate and potassium fertilizers per 10 liters of water (it is best to use potassium sulfate and superphosphate).
Pruning monarda is reduced only to cleaning the aerial parts of plants before the arrival of winter. In late autumn, the entire aerial part of the bush is cut to a stump. Cut off shoots of monarda must be removed from the site and immediately destroyed. In monarda, seed ripening does not affect the duration of flowering, so it is not necessary to remove faded shoots on their own.
In one place, the monard can grow 5-6 years. Rejuvenation is traditionally carried out with signs of loss of decorativeness and baldness of the center of the curtain. But it is better not to wait for the dying of the bushes and the loss of their attractiveness, but to carry out timely separation every 3-4 years. This will keep the monarda always attractive and plentifully flowering.
A new generation of plants can be obtained by vegetative methods and from seeds. When propagated by seeds, monarda can mutate, varietal characteristics of plants are not preserved, therefore, when growing rare varieties of monarda and if you want to maintain color, you need to use only the method of separation of bushes.
Separation of bushes is carried out during rejuvenation, digging sods with a large lump of earth in spring or autumn. The central part is removed from the bush, and the lateral ones are divided into 2-3, sometimes more strong divisions and each is used as an independent plant. In each part separated from the bush, at least 3-4 strong shoots and a large bunch of roots should be preserved.
Monarda seeds are sown directly in open soil on special ridges or use the seedling method.
Seedlings should be sown at the end of March, only slightly covered with soil and maintaining the moisture of the substrate until emergence. Care for young shoots is standard. The monarda is transferred to the ground from the end of May.
In open soil, sowing is carried out only in June and July. Before sowing monarda in the soil, a large amount of organic fertilizers must be introduced into the soil, in particular compost and humus. Furrows are made on the soil surface at a distance of 15-20 cm, they are watered abundantly and only then seeds are sparsely sown. They are covered from above with as thin a layer of soil as possible and immediately cover the entire bed with non-woven material or film. Shelter is removed only after emergence. Watering the seeds before germination is necessary up to 3 times a week. Plants grow with double thinning, first by 10, and then by 20 cm until the next year. Young shoots are very fragile, weeds can easily drown them out, so crops will need frequent weeding. They are transferred to a permanent place in spring, planting 5-6 plants in one hole.
Pests and diseases
Monarda belongs to the most sustainable garden plants. She is not afraid of either pests or diseases, and even with signs of spots on the leaves, it is most likely a downy mildew, which only spoils the appearance, but does not harm the plant itself or neighboring crops. Downy mildew in the monarda appears only with excessive drying of the soil and prolonged drought, as well as with thickened plantings, when air circulation is difficult. Having planted the monarda correctly and not forgetting the maintenance watering in the summer, you actually guarantee the attractiveness of this plant.
Very rarely, monarda in the vicinity of a diseased plant can become infected with rust or tobacco mosaic, but usually these diseases spread to monarda only on ultralight soils.
The roots of this plant, as well as the greens, contain a large amount of essential oils. They have a fungicidal effect on the soil, contribute to the healing of neighboring plants and act as a prophylaxis against insect pests.