Layout of fruit and berry garden
The layout of the fruit and berry orchard is a responsible task, the solution of which will depend on the future supply of the family with delicious and varied fruits and berries. Therefore, when planning the site you need (as they say) to rush slowly.
When planning the land, it is necessary to allocate an open sunny place with a high groundwater level for the garden. You can’t lay a garden in the lowlands, where cold streams of air and water will fall during spring floods. After an external examination of the land allocated for the garden, identify and write down in your diary a list of preparatory work.
- Clean the area of old stumps, wild shrubs, stones and other debris.
- Deeply plow the area or dig with a turnover of the reservoir.
- Pour to provoke weed shoots. On seedlings, conduct a deep cultivation and level the site.
- In parallel, give the soil to the nearest chemical laboratory to determine the physical condition and type of soil, its chemical composition. This is necessary for subsequent maintenance of the garden: fertilizing, irrigation, and other agricultural activities.
- According to the results of the analysis (according to the recommendations), add the recommended doses of fertilizers and other reclamation components under the final autumn treatment. Without such data, it is impractical to fertilize the site. It is better to introduce fertilizers and other components directly into the planting pit (mineral fertilizers, humus or vermicompost, slaked lime, biological products from pests and diseases).
Zoning during the planning of garden and berry planting
On a separate sheet of the garden diary, plot the layout of the garden. The garden can be located in front of the house, on the side or behind, but trees and bushes should be located from north to south for better illumination and have three zones. They can be located one after the other or divided into three separate sections located at different ends of the total area of the cottage.
- If the zoning is joint, then in the first zone a garden is laid, the plants of which will not obscure the cultures of the second zone, and in the morning they will receive their share of the sun.
- In the second zone, it is better to place the berry. Their height is up to 1.5 meters. The morning shade from the bushes will not harm the plants of the third zone.
- In the third zone, the orchard itself will be planted. From neighbors, it should be at a distance of 2.5-3.0 m, so as not to obscure their area.
On the pages of the garden diary, write down the names and a brief description of fruit and berry crops, and in the diagram indicate their location on the plot area under the numbers.
When breaking the berry on the diagram, immediately take into account the nature of the plants. So, blackcurrant grows quietly surrounded by other neighbors, but sea buckthorn and viburnum are quite inactive with their neighbors. Therefore, they are planted separately. Sea buckthorn can be used as a green hedge, and viburnum, hawthorn - in the landscape decoration of the relaxation corner. In solitaire landings of mowed lawns, they look great.
Some owners believe that berry plants are generally better placed along the boundaries of the site. In this case, part of the land is freed for other cultures or areas (recreation, sports, etc.). Such planning is suitable if the site is not fenced with green hedge or berry bushes themselves can serve this purpose as their characteristics (prickly, dense, etc.).
The density of berry planting is very important. It is a natural regulator of the optimal development of plants, their resistance to diseases and crop formation.
- Raspberries are planted in dense rows, after 0.5 m from each other and 1.0-1.5 meters between rows. Growing, raspberries occupy aisles, former aisles are freed from raspberries and become temporary paths. By pruning, the culture is interchanged, returning after 2-4 years to its original place.
- Ioshta, black and golden currants are planted at a distance between the bushes of at least 1.5 m, and red through a meter. Large bushes will obscure each other, thorns of individual varieties of gooseberries and completely limit access to berries. When using green hedge, honeysuckle and irgu are planted through 1.0-1.5 meters (and even denser), and in the berry at a distance of up to 2 meters.
The number of certain berry bushes is very important. Think over and plan ahead in advance the quantity of each species and variety so that you can provide your family with fresh berries and make preparations for the winter. For a family of 4-5 people there will be enough raspberries of 20 bushes, 3-4 bushes of all types of currants and gooseberries, ioshta, iraghi and honeysuckle. Leave some free space for the exotic newbies who will appear in your field of vision over time. A properly planned berry grows normally and bears fruit within 7-12 years, and then gradually rejuvenates or the bushes are transferred to another place.
Breakdown of the orchard
On the next free garden diary page, draw a layout of fruit crops. Conditionally allocate 4 square meters for each culture. m of total area under one tree. Do not thicken the landing. The trees will grow and begin to interfere, or even oppress each other. Planting pits should be in a row at a distance of 4.0-4.5 m. Leave aisles of at least 2.5-3.0 m. Pay attention to the types of crops. So, today the majority of farms are switching to the colon-shaped forms of apple trees and pears - the main garden crops in the country house. In terms of habit, these species are much smaller, and the crop forms almost equal to tall crops. Coloniform forms are easier to care for, they are resistant to disease, less damaged by frost.
For an average family, 1-2 trees of each species are enough. In the garden, early, middle and late varieties must be present in order to have fresh fruits throughout the warm season and still prepare processed ones for the winter. From garden crops, it is enough to have 2 cherries (early and late). Instead of middle cherries, plant 2 cherries. They form a crop after an early cherry. You need 1 quince (later you can plant another species or other varieties on it), 2-3 plums, including one marabel.
Enough 1-2 frost-resistant apricots. 2-3 apple trees, which over time through vaccination can be turned into 6-8 varieties of different ripening dates. Do not forget to leave a place for exotics. Walnut must be planted separately. Almost nothing grows under the crown of this culture. If you love hazel, take the first row for it so that the taller trees do not deprive her of the sun with their shadow. 11-12 fruit trees will eventually turn into 18-20 varieties of all kinds.
In order for the garden to serve for a long time and not get sick, it is necessary to use zoned varieties. They are more resistant to diseases, pests, weather changes, bear fruit longer. You can get acquainted with the varieties and varieties for your region, up to the district, and their characteristics in catalogs and other literature. When buying seedlings, be sure to contact specialists. Remember! The garden, laid by low-quality seedlings, will add work and care, but will not please the harvest and the quality of the fruits.
General approaches to planting a garden
Launch the garden in the fall, that is, dig planting pits according to your scheme, prepare next to each fertilizer mixture that is necessary for the state of the soil.
Landing pit preparation
In autumn, you will be able to prepare a planting pit of only approximate sizes, since the final version will be determined by the size of the root system, depending on the age of the purchased seedling. The preliminary size of the planting pit is approximately 60x60 for 2-year-old seedlings, for 3-year-olds it can be increased to 70x80 cm and finalized when planting a seedling in the pit.
Near each pit, mix the topsoil with humus, peat. In the spring, before planting a seedling, add a glass of wood ash and slaked lime and 200 g of nitrophoska to this mixture. Mix well.
Purchase and preparation of seedlings
Planting seedlings is best done in the spring. During the growing season, seedlings will grow stronger, the root system will be strengthened. During the warm spring-summer-autumn period, a young tree adapts to a new location.
Take your time to buy seedlings from certain unfamiliar sellers, especially along the roads leading to the cottage. It is better to purchase seedlings in farms engaged in their cultivation or in nurseries. There is more confidence that you will get the desired zoned variety of the garden or berry crop you need.
Carefully inspect the selected seedling. If you find dried roots, crooked stem, cracks in the bark or drops of gum, refuse the purchase. Remember! No assurances from the seller will return the lost time.
Rules for planting seedlings
Soak seedlings in rootstock or other growth stimulant 1-2 days before planting. Prepare a bowl of clay mash with the addition of root, planris or phytosporin. Other biofungicides suitable for tank mixtures may be used.
Approximately 2-3 weeks before the seedlings are planted, pour part of the soil mixture with a cone into the pit. During this week, the cone will settle, and the planted seedling will be correctly placed in the pit. Dip the prepared seedling into a mashroom, insert it into the pit, spreading the root along the cone so that there are no creases upwards, and cover 2/3 of the pit with soil mixture. Pour a bucket of water. After soaking, cover the rest of the soil mixture or soil. Drive the stake and fasten the seedling with the figure eight to the support. An unsecured seedling, swaying under gusts of wind, will cut off small roots that provide the connection of the plant with the soil.
Important nuances of landing
When planting, be sure to follow the correct depth of the root neck. When it is buried, the tree can dry out after 5-10 years (especially on heavy soils). On light sandy loamy soils (especially in the south), it is better to deepen the root neck a little into the soil (8-10 cm), “hiding” it from the upper drying layer. In seedlings that form subordinate roots or shoots (figs, currants, plums, apple trees), deepening does not interfere with the normal development of the tree. Seedlings of these crops quickly rebuild the root system, often on insufficiently moist soils.
In root-growing seedlings, the root neck should be located at the level of the planting pit or 2-3 cm higher (no more). In grafted seedlings, the grafting site is located 4-8 cm above the root neck. Novice gardeners often confuse the root collar and the vaccine and deepen the planting to the site of the vaccination. In this case, the root neck is deeply buried in the soil and the tree dies early.
If you have correctly identified the root neck and planted a seedling so that it rises 4-5 cm above the soil, then the tree has been planted correctly. We compact the soil around the planting. At a distance from the trunk with a radius of 30-50 cm, make a roller 5-7 cm high and pour another 2-3 buckets of water. Together with absorbed water, a seedling will also be pulled into the soil. Make sure that the root neck remains 2-3 cm above the soil. If necessary, add soil after watering and mulch with a small layer of small mulch (peat or humus, sawdust). If you bought live seedlings, the planting was done correctly, in 2-3 weeks your garden will become green with the first young leaves.
How to determine the root neck
- In a young seedling, wipe the bottom of the trunk and the beginning of the root well with a wet rag. The root neck is defined as the transition of a greenish color (trunk) to light brown (root zone).
- In older adult seedlings (3-4 years old), we rub the lower part of the trunk with a wet rag and after drying out the wet zone, carefully scrape off the bark with a knife at the site of the barely visible extension of the trunk to the root. If the scraped color of the young subcortical layer is green at the site of expansion, then this is the stem, and if it is yellow, then the root zone. The place of transition of one color to another is the root neck.
- In some seedlings, the place of departure from the trunk of the upper lateral roots is clearly visible. This is the root neck. The origin of the roots should remain above the level of the landing pit.
What can not be done when planting seedlings
- When planting, you can not use semi-rotted manure, only humus mixed with soil.
- You can not often water the seedlings with small norms of water. They only drain the soil in the planting pit.
- You can not water the seedlings with cold water (from an artesian).
- It is impossible to fertilize plants, and especially nitrogen fertilizers, in the first year after planting.
- After planting, you can’t mulch the trunk circle with a large layer of mulch. In the event of prolonged rains, the water accumulated in the mulch will cause the young bark to wither and the plant to die. A thick layer of mulch is applied in the fall, which will protect the soil from freezing and death of seedlings from low temperatures.
What you need to do when planting seedlings
- Whiten young seedlings with a solution of chalk with clay with the addition of biological products from diseases and pests or a solution of copper sulfate.
- Insulate the trunk with several layers of burlap, lutrasil, spandbond, paper and other materials.
- From the hares and other rodents, protect the trunk with a netting chain link or lapnik, digging the latter into the soil by 5-10 cm.
- After each sufficiently large snowfall, trample the snow around the trunk, which will protect the latter from damage by mice.