Murraya - the tree of Japanese emperors
A short legend introduces us to the world of miracles and wonderful mysterious plants:
About 500 years ago, a miniature tree was brought from the Himalayas and placed next to the head of the seriously ill Japanese emperor. The miracle tree was supposed to heal the emperor, strengthen his ability to give the heirs healthy and talented. ... And it was so.
Murraya is an evergreen short tree (3-6 m) or a shrub of the root family. Indoor is extremely rare, although it is worthy of attention especially lovers of exotic. Unrivaled in beauty, true murraya, does not require special crown formation, blooms from the first months of life almost all year round. Murraya plants have an amazing feature. The flowering wave has passed, the growth and branching of new stems resumes until the next bud formation. Therefore, Murraye pruning is not needed. She forms her crown on her own.
As a medicinal plant, Murraya has been known since ancient Japanese dynasties. Medicinal infusions and decoctions, the use of ripened fruits were intended only to the strengths of the world, and attempts to grow a tree on its own always ended in a cut off of the head. Maybe this cruelty limited the use of the natural "elixir of life" to mere mortals. It is believed that taking 2-3 Murraya berries per day causes an explosion of intelligence and the hidden abilities of a person. Natural aphrodisiac not only enhances sexual desire, but also increases male power. Decoctions of leaves have found the widest application in folk medicine.
Murraya belongs to tropical plants. Its distribution range covers areas of South and Southeast Asia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and the Polynesian islands. In the plant world order system, it belongs to the root family, where it is distinguished into a separate genus Murraya (Murraya). The genus has about 8 species, the most famous are the Murraya König and the Murraya paniculata.
Murraya König is better known as black murraya, common in tropical and subtropical regions of India and Sri Lanka. A tree is 3-6 m tall with long, hard-pinnate leaves. Leaflets in a complex sheet are arranged in pairs (11-20 pairs) along the stem. Murraya König is characterized by elongated leaf blades of complex leaves. The flowers are small, light cream or white, have a rich, but pleasant aroma. The fruit is a berry of black or dark blue color. The fruits are edible, and the seeds are poisonous.
- The leaves have a fragrant aroma and are part of the spicy curry seasoning used in almost all dining dishes to increase appetite in the hot humid regions of its main residence. Fresh leaves are added to all dishes, giving them a specific delicate aroma.
- The method of steam distillation from the leaves of black murraya produces oil, which goes like a perfume in the production of soap.
- Solid, durable wood was previously used for the manufacture of agricultural crafts and tools.
- The leaves are widely used in Ayurvedic and traditional medicine of the countries of South Asia, as a medicinal herb with anti-oncological and anti-diabetic properties. Decoctions for the treatment of the gastrointestinal tract and some skin diseases are also prepared from leaves.
In room culture, mainly panicled murraya (Mogra) is distributed. It has many synonyms: exotic murraya, jasmine orange, jasmine orange, Japanese myrtle. Since the mogra blooms almost constantly, in India it is used for jewelry and offerings of living necklaces. During marriage ceremonies, women decorate hair with flowers of Mogra, it is used to decorate temples and sanctuaries, during various holidays, festivals. The sweet aroma of flowers is used instead of perfume.
Panicled Murray is an indoor crop up to 0.7-1.5 m high for indoor use. Formed as a bush, sapling or bonsai. The trunk and perennial branches are embossed, white-marbled in color. The leaves are dark green, shiny, small in bright light cast in gold and wonderfully set off white flowers alone or in apical corymbose inflorescences. It blooms almost year-round, sometimes with a 2-3 month (November-January) break. The flowers have a wonderful smell. Even one flower fills the room with a lemon-jasmine (closer to jasmine) aroma that does not cause an allergic headache.
It differs in very early flowering, occurring 2-4 months after germination. If during this period the plant did not form a single bud, then a false murraya was bought. The fruits are bright red 1.5-3.0 cm, with edible pericarp, do not fall for a long time, have a strong tonic property.
Genghis Khan and Alexander the Great, took a drink or ate several fruits before the decisive battles. Warriors of Genghis Khan took the fruits of murraya with them, raising it as long-distance campaigns, calling it foreign.
The healing properties of Murray
Decoctions and infusions of leaves, flowers and fruits of Murray are used in the treatment of diabetes, thyroid gland, impotence, coronary heart disease, hypertension and other diseases, as well as in perfumes of East Asia. The complex aroma of flowers positively affects the work of the heart, improves sleep, reduces the frequency of angina attacks. Fruits reduce pressure, increase tone and immunity.
The use of Murraya in landscaping
Amazingly beautiful plant can be used in arrangements of festive halls, in the decor of interiors of apartments, official institutions, offices, conservatories and other premises. As a result of the mutation, a dwarf form of panicled murraya was formed. The height of the plant during home cultivation does not exceed 0.5 m. A slowly growing shrub blooms during the first six months of life, barely reaching 4-5 cm in height.
Features of Murraya care at home
Relation to lighting and air temperature
The purchased plant is gradually accustomed to new living conditions, especially to light, moisture, and ambient temperature. When placed on brightly lit window sills, they must be shaded from direct sunlight. If there is not enough natural light, you can illuminate the plant. Backlighting is carried out with phytolamps up to 12-14 hours a day). In summer, Murraya feels great outdoors without direct exposure to the sun.
Please note! In low light, plants bloom weakly, and in very bright conditions they get sunburn and respond to them by dropping leaves and falling buds and flowers.
Murraya is a heat lover, but does not tolerate excessive heat. The optimum indoor temperature in the summer is + 24 ... + 25 ºС, and in winter not lower than + 17 ... + 18 ºС. Sudden changes in air temperature and drafts are undesirable. The plant begins to hurt.
Like most tropical plants, murraya develops well on slightly acidic, light water- and breathable soils. For planting and transplants, you can buy a ready-made soil substrate or make it yourself from a mixture of leaf, sod, humus soil and sand in a ratio of 2: 2: 2: 1 and you must add vermiculite or coconut fiber soil baking powder under the young plant. The soil mixture may be of a different composition, but a slightly acid reaction is required. In neutral and slightly alkaline soil, the plant easily develops chlorosis.
Fertilizer and fertilizing
Murraya needs a complete mineral and organic fertilizer. Together with watering 1 time per month, ready-made complex fertilizers with microelements are applied under the plants according to the recommendations. With a lack of trace elements, chlorosis develops, which is expressed in blanching of the leaves, loss of turgor and decay. Orton Micro-Fe microfertilizer containing a chelated form of iron should be added to top dressing. Organic fertilizers are pre-diluted with settled water in a ratio of 1:15 (manure) or 1:30 (bird droppings) and alternate their application with mineral fertilizers.
Watering and humidity
Murraya is demanding on air humidity. If the air is too dry, it stops growing, so low wide containers of water are placed near it and sprayed 2-3 times a week through a fine spray bottle.
During the growing season, Murraya needs abundant watering without stagnation of water in the pan. The next watering is carried out by drying the upper 3-5 cm soil layer. Water should have room temperature, not contain chlorine. It is better to soften the water before irrigation with acidification with lemon or vinegar water (literally a few drops per 1 liter of water). In waterlogged soil, rotting of the neck of the neck quickly develops and the plant dies.
Reproduction and transplantation
At home, Murraya paniculata successfully propagated by seeds. Since the seeds quickly lose their germination, they are sown immediately after harvesting the fruits. 1-2 seeds are planted in a 100 gram plastic cup with a light nutritious soil mixture. After sowing, the cup is covered with a transparent cap, the temperature is maintained at + 22- + 25 * С. The substrate is watered during planting and subsequently only maintain humidity.
Shoots appear after 10-15 days. The grown seedlings are transplanted into larger pots or cups. Murraya paniculata can still propagate by cuttings, but long-term rooting is complex with a large percentage of waste. In contrast to panicled murraya, in adult plants of the Koenig murraya, root shoots appear, which can be used for vegetative propagation.
Up to 5 years of age, Murray is transplanted annually in the spring. When transplanting, the capacity is increased in diameter by 1-2 cm. When transplanting, the root neck cannot be deepened. Adult plants are transplanted once every 2-3 years by transshipment. When transplanting, the root is gently shaken from the old soil mixture, being careful not to damage, the root is spread over the soil tubercle sprinkled on the drainage. Top up with a new substrate, slightly compacted and watered. Please note! Murray should not be overfed, so proceed to feeding after 1.0-1.5 months from the day of planting. In a kadushka culture, murrayas only replace the upper 5-12 cm layer of soil mixture with a new one.
Crown formation in all plants, including murraya, is achieved by pruning and pinching. An exception is the dwarf form of panicled murraya, which from its very birth forms independently its aboveground mass.
In order to give Murraya bush a more magnificent desired shape, strengthen its branching or limit growth, in the spring at the beginning of the growing season, pinching each twig is carried out. If desired, bonsai can be formed from Murray. Trimming the bonsai crown must be done according to the recommended rules.
Why is murraya not blooming?
As can be seen from the requirements of murraya to the conditions of life support, plants do not require special conditions. But there is one feature. In order for them to bloom and form fruits, sufficient humidity is needed. Murray flowers in the open state last 1-2 days. For the emergence of new high humidity is needed. Pollen is sterile in dry air
Murray protection against pests and diseases
Murraya is susceptible to damage by common indoor pests: aphids, whiteflies, spider mites, scale insects and others. In room culture, plants are forbidden to protect from pests and diseases with chemicals, due to harm to health. Therefore, young plants relieve aphids from a warm shower, previously covering the substrate in a pot with a film. The shield can be removed manually with tweezers. It is more practical to treat adult plants with biological products that are harmless to humans and animals. According to the recommendations, infected plants can be sprinkled with Fitoverm or Entobacterin biologics. If there are signs of the disease (falling buds, leaves, general wilting), you can sprinkle the plants with the biological products Fitosporin, Iskra-Bio and others.