How I grow peanuts for the benefit of myself and other plants
Peanuts seem to be one of the most versatile foods. It can be pickled for a snack. Salty peanuts are also appreciated by many. Oil can be squeezed out of it. Peanut paste in the confectionery industry is used everywhere, as well as roasted seeds. And, in general, it can be added to salads, snacks, first, second courses and dessert - it will be delicious everywhere! It turned out that this was not all his wonderful features. How to grow peanuts with benefit for ourselves and for other plants, I will tell in this article.
What kind of plant is peanuts?
It’s not even a nut at all, but a bean plant with pods (beans) that contain seeds that are incorrectly called nuts. But it so happened that everywhere it is called peanut.
The homeland of peanuts is South America. And from there, through the efforts of, for the most part, Spaniards and Portuguese, peanuts spread to other continents. Given his origin, he loves heat, the sun and the average amount of moisture in the soil.
Peanuts grow by a bush, 30-50 cm in height (sometimes 100, but this is not with us). It is such a normal bean with characteristic yellow flowers, and you will not suspect it of any tricks. And he - bam! And the fruits that are tied up are stuffed into the ground, tilting the branches down for this purpose. There are probably many young bean lovers in South America and you have to hide them right away. And most likely, peanuts do not rely on anyone to distribute seeds and plant them on their own.
The very process of “stuffing the ovaries into the ground” is very interesting. The first time I became interested in it at school: I planted a peanut kernel in a flower pot with loose earth and every day I monitored all stages of growth and development. I didn’t even know about self-pollination, but, to my happiness, the plant coped with it itself.
After flowering, the peduncle began to sink to the ground and stuck. Nothing more interesting happened on the surface. When the leaves began to dry, I digged into the ground and on the former peduncles I found a pod with two nuts.
It is clear that for many years of cultivation, peanut varieties have been created that are suitable for different conditions and produce grains of different sizes, densities, sweets and oil content. For the most part, they have a long growing season and high heat requirements.
There are two main subspecies - Asian and American. The Asian vegetation period is 3-5 months and the seed dormancy period is up to 2 years; American vegetation has 3-5 months and there is almost no dormant period in seeds. That is, only American subspecies are suitable for us.
In general, in Russia, peanuts in open ground can be grown from the latitude of Rostov and to the south. This is an industrial version. In amateur - where eggplant grows, there peanuts grow. And in the greenhouse it will not be superfluous.
There are not so many early varieties, with a growing season of 100-120 days - "Acorn" and Perzuvan-462, Adyg, Klinsky, Stepnyak. After 120-140 days will mature Krasnodar-14, as well as "Spanish-344", "Ukrainian Valencia", "Valencia 433".
Features of growing peanuts
It is better to grow peanuts in the seedling method, sowing 1-2 cups in cups. Shoots appear after 2 weeks, will bloom after 3 weeks, at this point it is advisable to plant in the ground. The more heat and sun, the better the plant develops and bears fruit.
Peanuts are unpretentious to soils, the main conditions are: they should not be sour and loose, but how will he stuff his gynophors there? Waterlogging contributes to various diseases and rotting of pods, so it is better to dry than to overfill.
Since, as fruiting, peanuts will occupy neighboring territories, it is advisable to plant it at a distance of at least 40 cm from each other.
After flowering, it is recommended to spud - the earth will be loose and closer to the inflorescences. So as not to strain, and then bloomed. Hobing over the season can be done several times.
When the leaves begin to wilt, you can try to dig out the bush with a pitchfork and see what is there? Further on the situation: if it is rainy and wet, it is better to dig out, if it is dry - let them sit until the last, that is, until the temperature drops to +5 ° C.
After digging, it’s good to dry it, put it in mesh bags and hang it higher in a draft so that no thrifty animals get there.
My experiments with peanuts
Everything that is written in the section "Varieties and growing conditions" I learned after I grew peanuts in my garden. I didn’t even look for varietal seeds, I still had a little peanut not roasted and not eaten by my son, bought at the market in Goryachy Klyuch (Krasnodar Territory, we now live here) - large and small. I soaked them in warm water and changed them every day due to the appearance of mucus. Three days later they bent over.
I didn’t prepare the garden, it seemed to me that the determinant early tomatoes were planted with me quite freely, and I pushed peanut kernels between them. Already from the neighborhood with legumes, they certainly should not be worse, and the benefit may happen.
Since the time we lived in the Khabarovsk Territory, we have been making the beds fenced, centimeters 20 raised above the soil level. Our soil is clayey, very dense, so we don’t dig anything when forming the beds, put the box on the grass, cover it with cardboard, and cover it with fine wood debris (bark, branches, sticks), foliage and shells from under hazel, pouring earth from a drainage ditch. In spring, again, add dry foliage with grass and spill with an EM solution. Actually there is little land.
I planted seedlings of tomatoes and peanut grains at the very beginning of May. Two days later, she mulled the whole bed with freshly cut grass and safely forgot about peanuts after all spring care.
I returned to her after two weeks, toss up still freshly cut grass. And then between the tomatoes found characteristic bean bores. I had to pay a little attention to them: I planted generously, 3-4 pieces per hole, they all ascended. It's a pity, but pulled out the extra, folded right there, under the tomatoes.
Then, during the summer, she still planted grass as mulch, several times her husband watered the entire garden - the summer turned out to be dry. And she laid out the overgrown stalks of tomatoes on the sides of the bed so that the sun would also get peanuts. Although he didn’t get much — tomatoes were very good next to peanuts, they grew in all directions and fruited abundantly to frost.
The first bush of peanuts pulled out by accident in August, the crop on it was modest. But there was! And I already thought that the tomatoes completely strangled him. The rest of the peanuts pulled out in October, when digging a sweet potato. The soil is loose, grass is on top, and the bush, along with the beans, is easily pulled out. With 6 bushes, I got 1.5 kg of beans. For such "cramped" circumstances, this is a good result.
Peanuts were dried next to sweet potato, sprinkling a thin layer on newspapers. How much is stored - I do not know, we ate it for a month.
The next year, distrusting the determinant tomatoes more, she planted sprouted grains of peanuts in the strawberry garden. I hoped that here peanuts would certainly get more sun. All my manipulations were closely watched by a jay, from a pebble-step on a slope. I thought she was well-intentioned ...
Everything became clear when, after a week, mulching strawberries with grass and digging in the ground (surprisingly loose in the places of planting!), I did not find a single nut. Since all the peanuts in the house were eaten by this time, and time was lost, last season the peanut experiment failed miserably.
The benefits of peanuts for joint planting with potatoes and tomatoes
It turned out that about joint landings, I’m not the only one so smart. In 2006-2008 in the Voronezh region, studies were conducted of the mutual influence of plants during the joint planting of peanuts with tomatoes and peanuts with potatoes. The results are very interesting:
- both in potatoes, and in tomatoes, and in peanuts in joint plantings, the assimilation surface of leaves noticeably increased in comparison with monoplants, by an average of 12%;
- the maximum yield of peanuts was formed during cultivation with tomato and potato early ripe, exceeding the yield of monoplantation by 33%;
- the total yield was higher in the plantings of peanuts with late tomatoes;
- the number of weeds in joint plantings is half less than in single plantings;
- late blight disease in joint plantings is 25-30% lower than in monoculture.
That is, peanuts with one of their presence (bean!) Can significantly improve the stability and productivity of garden crops. A peanut crop is an added bonus.