Dill - description, cultivation, useful properties
Dill (Anethum) Is a monotypic genus of annual herbaceous plants of the Umbrella family (Umbelliferae) containing a single view - Odorous dill, or Garden dill (Anethum graveolens) In the wild, dill is found in southwest and central Asia. Latin name of the plantAnethum graveolens comes from the Latinized Greek name for dill - anethon and from latin graveolens - strongly smelling. The birthplace of dill is considered to be Southern Europe, Egypt, Asia Minor, where it is known since ancient times.
The names of dill in the world
Americans in the 17th-18th centuries before long church services allowed their children to chew dill seed so that they would not fall asleep - at least, some linguists explain one of the American names for meetinseeds dill seed - “gathering seeds”.
However, this version is refuted by another English (as well as German, Norwegian and Swedish) name of the dill dill, which is often associated with the Old Icelandic word dilla - "calm, pacification."
Also, dill has long been used to relieve gas-related pain in infants, so perhaps Puritans gave “seeds for gatherings” to their children for completely different reasons.
There is another, simplest version of the origin of the word dill - from the German Dolde - an umbrella (inflorescence).
But the Russian word dill is most likely connected with the fact that in Russia its leaves were usually very finely chopped and “sprinkled” with them before serving. Max Fasmer, the author of the Etymological Dictionary of the Russian Language, associates it with the word sprinkle, and Dahl in his dictionary also cites such an old Russian meaning of the word dill as “a church vessel in which holy water is kept” (and then the believers are “sprinkled” with it )
In addition, boiling water and hot water were called “dill” in the south of Russia, thus “pouring dill on a piglet” meant scalding it for cleaning; Incidentally, in the Pskov region, a teapot was once even called a “dill”.
People still call dill differently - coper, copier, creep, crop, spawning, fennel, cumin, dac.
The history of dill
Oddly enough, for some unknown reason, almost all the famous ancient physicians, including the great Avicenna, considered excessive and prolonged use of dill harmful to the brain and argued that large doses of it cause visual impairment, possibly because medieval witches not only used the plant as a remedy for the evil eye, but also added to almost all love potions.
Surprisingly, seeds, leaves, stems and inflorescences of dill in Europe began to be added to sauces, marinades, pickles and pickles only after the 16th century. Most likely, the prejudice was based on the side effects of dill. Its large doses lower blood pressure, which can cause a hypotonic state, which manifests itself in the form of fainting, temporary visual impairment, and even a general loss of strength. In order to eliminate the negative consequences, ancient doctors recommended taking dill with honey, cloves or cinnamon. However, cunning Europeans, who became acquainted with dill almost simultaneously with strong alcoholic drinks, learned to use its useful properties in the “withdrawal syndrome”, that is, with a trivial hangover.
You, too, may have noticed that cucumber pickle, well-infused with dill, helps "after yesterday"? Here is the reason for the wide popularity of English dill pickles - pickled cucumbers around the world served with smoked and salted fish, cold meat snacks, as well as hamburgers and corned beef. Even one of the German names for dill Gurkenkraut (literally: "cucumber grass") clearly indicates its involvement in pickle - pickles and pickles have long been loved in Germany. In the end, and we are not inferior to the "Busurmans" in the ability to pickle cucumbers.
Botanical description of dill
Dill is an annual herbaceous plant of the Umbrella, or Celery family, 40–120 cm high. The stem is single, branched, with alternate, thrice- or four-fold-dissected leaves; lobules of the leaf are linear filamentary, lower on the petioles, at the base expanded into wide-membered vaginas, up to 2 cm long; upper sessile on the vagina, smaller, threadlike, less dissected. The inflorescence is located on the tops of the stems in the form of a complex umbrella up to 15 cm across. The fruit is an ovoid or broadly elliptic grayish-brown two-seeded seedlings, blooming in June-July.
Features of growing dill
For greens, seeds are sown in small batches in 10-15 days. At the age of 25-30 days, when the plants reach a height of 10-15 cm, they are used for food. For spices, dill is grown for 55-60 days (before flowering and seed formation: at this time they are most fragrant).
Extra-early sowing of dill is possible, since seed germination begins already at a temperature of 3 ° C, and plant growth at 5-8 ° C. However, the temperature most favorable for plant development is considered to be 16-17 ° C.
Despite the undemanding to growing conditions, dill needs watering and organic fertilizers for autumn finches (6 kg per 1 m2), as well as nitrogen (20 g), phosphorus (30 g) and potash (20 g per 1 m2).
Soil preparation for dill - as a radish. For sowing on the greens, the aisles should be after 15 cm, and for spices - after 45 cm. The seeds are planted to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. Shoots appear on the 14th day. If the seeds are wetted before sowing for 2-3 days, they germinate faster; it is necessary to change the water daily. For spices, scatter planting of dill on vegetable crops can be applied. In this case, when weeding, it is necessary to leave the right amount of plants.
Varieties of dill
Currently, more than 20 popular dill varieties are known in Russia. Here are some of them that have proven themselves well:
- Dill "Gribovsky" - The most common, precocious, unpretentious and disease-resistant variety. The period from emergence to harvesting greens is 32-35 days. It has a strong aroma.
- Dill "Grenadier" - An early ripe variety intended for both greens and umbrellas. The period from emergence to harvesting greens is 35-40 days. Plants of this variety quickly proceed to the formation of inflorescences.
- Dill Richelieu - The variety is mid-season. The period from emergence to harvesting greens is 40-42 days. Valued for bluish-green leaves with a strong aroma.
- Dill "Kibray" - The variety is late ripe, therefore it is recommended to sow it early and grow in protected ground. The leaves are beautiful, wide, but sensitive to sudden changes in temperature.
Medicinal raw materials
The official raw materials are dill. In folk medicine and dietetics, grass is used. Fruits are ripe, dried, split into two parts, ovoid, elliptical, with a groove. The length of the fruit is 3-5, the thickness is 2-3 mm. On the outside of the fruit there are five ribs: the extreme ribs are elongated in wide wings, green-gray in color, with a characteristic aromatic odor, spicy taste.
Dill is harvested when 60–70% of the seeds in the umbrellas reach a brown color. Cleaning is carried out in a separate way. Mowed plants are knitted in bunches, suspended in a dry room for drying, after drying, they are picked up and threshed with a combine to separate the fruits.
To obtain the essential oil, dill is harvested in the phase of milk-wax ripeness of seeds in the central umbrella of the inflorescence. Plants are mowed at a height of 18–20 cm from the soil surface and are freshly processed by the hydrodistillation method.
Dill is harvested on greens in June-July (in the afternoon, when there is no dew). Plants tear, shake the ground, knit in bunches. The green mass is dried in special rooms that are well ventilated. Store grass in a sealed container. Blooming grass is harvested in July and used in folk medicine.
Biologically active substances of dill
According to the pharmacognostic classification, the fruits of dill are raw materials containing furanochromony - visnagin and kellin.
Also, the fruits of dill are rich in essential and fatty oils. The main components of the essential oil are carvone (40-60%) and anethole (up to 50%). Fennel fruits also contain other components: terpenoids dillapiol (19–40%), dihydrocarvone, carveol, dihydrocarveol, isoeugenol.
Fatty oil contains up to 93% glycerides of fatty acids, including linoleic, palmitic, oleic, petroselin. Coumarins, phenolcarboxylic acids (chlorogenic, caffeic), flavonoids, wax, resins, protein (14–15%), nitrogenous substances, and fiber were found in the fruits.
Dill herb contains 0.56–1.5% of essential oil with a lower carvon content (up to 16%) compared to fruit oil. It contains vitamins C, B1, B2, PP, P, provitamin A, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, iron salts, folic acid, flavonoids (quercetin, isoramnetin, campferol).
Pharmacological properties of dill and use in medicine
Dill infusion has an antispasmodic effect on the intestines, reduces its peristalsis, increases diuresis.
Dill seed is used as an infusion for flatulence and as an expectorant. A tablespoon of seed is poured with a glass of boiling water, insisted for 10-15 minutes, filtered, taken orally in a tablespoon 3-6 times a day 15 minutes before meals.
Contraindicated in pronounced manifestations of circulatory failure.
Often dill seed is taken as a light diuretic.
When treating with dill, it is recommended to take a break after 5-6 days for 2-3 days.
Use of dill on the farm
Dill is widely used as a seasoning. Its leaves are added to salads, soups, sauces, gravy, meat, fish, vegetable and mushroom dishes. For canning take dill with the tops, that is, flowering umbrellas. A sprig of dill during flowering aromatizes vinegar. Greens are dried to combine with other herbs in order to obtain spicy mixtures.
Boiling green dill loses its aroma, and put it in a ready-made soup, stewed vegetables, fish, meat salads. It goes well with milk soups and sauces. It gives a unique aroma to young potatoes, boiled beans, a spicy taste for cheese, cottage cheese, omelet; improves the taste of fried potatoes, boiled red cabbage.
Seeds of dill aromatize tea, vinegar, marinades. (It is especially good to process fish with them.)
Dill is used to prepare dill oil, used in home cooking and confectionery.
Essential oil is used in the soap industry.
Pests and Dill Diseases
Here we look at the most common diseases and pests of dill.
Fusarium rot of dill roots - The disease is widespread in open ground on heavy soils with stagnation of water. The fungus infects the root system, penetrates the stem through the vessels of plants. At first the plant lags strongly in growth, then it turns red, turns brown and dries out. The infection persists in the soil on plant debris and in seeds that were collected from a diseased plant. But more often, infected plants die long before the seeds ripen.
- Removing plant debris.
- Culling affected plants.
- Cultivation of heavy soils, i.e. introduction of organic matter (compost, peat, rotted manure).
Wet rot of dill - the appearance of the disease is noticeable on yellowing, decaying leaves. Most often, the disease is transmitted to the leaves from an infected root. The source of infection is plant debris in the soil or infected seeds. Dark watery spots appear on the roots of dill, the tissues soften, rot, an unpleasant odor appears.
- The same as against Fusarium rot.
Fomoz dill - the disease manifests itself on the stems, leaves, umbrellas, seeds with dark elongated spots with numerous black dotted pycnids. Root infection is characteristic, followed by spreading to the stem. With increased humidity, summer sporulation develops, and spores mimic a neighboring plant. The infection persists in the soil on plant debris and on infected seeds.
- Culling affected plants.
- Collection and destruction of all plant debris.
- Using seeds from healthy plants.
Carrot gall midge - a small insect with one pair of wings. It occurs everywhere, causing the formation of round galls in the form of a thickening of the base of the whole inflorescence of dill or one of its rays. Inside the gall, an orange larva lives and feeds; there, inside the gall, she pupates.
- Cut and destroy all inflorescences of dill with galls.
Caraway moth - butterflies of various colors: the front wings are brownish or pinkish with dark strokes and white or black dots, - the hind wings are plain gray. Wingspan - 21-30 mm. Caterpillars are dark gray or blue-black. Butterflies hibernate indoors; in early June they lay eggs on umbrella plants; the larvae make passages in the leaves, mine the central veins, bite into the stems. At an older age, they switch to inflorescences, which are entangled in cobwebs; roughly eat flowers and seed ovaries. In July, the caterpillars gnaw through the cavities in the stems and pupate there. One generation develops per season.
- Pruning and destroying all dill inflorescences with caterpillars.
- The gardener and gardener of Siberia: Krasnoyarsk: RIMP "Vita", 1994 - 496 p. - from. 441.
- Turov. A. D., Sapozhnikova. E. N. / Medicinal plants of the USSR and their use. - 3rd ed., Revised. and add. - M .: Medicine, 1982, 304 p. - from. 171-172.
- Treyvas. L. Yu. / Protection of the garden. Diseases, pest, mistakes in agricultural technology. - M.: “Kladez Books”, 2007 - 123 p. 143-144.