There is evidence that the homeland of onion-batun is Asia. At the moment, large plantations of onions in the natural environment can be found in China, Siberia and Japan. As a cultivated plant, the onion-batun is found literally all over the globe and is cultivated exclusively for the sake of its green feather, which has a much more delicate, soft taste than onions (it hardly leaves an unpleasant “aftertaste” after itself).
Onion-batun (Allium fistulosum), or, as it is also called, duodenum, Tatar, Chinese or even sandy, is a herbaceous perennial culture belonging to the species of the genus Onion.
Bulb-onion bulbs are oblong and practically undeveloped. The stem, being absolutely complete inside, sometimes reaches a solid height - up to one meter (and sometimes more). The leaves are arched in shape, they are wider than ordinary onions. During the flowering period of the onion, one can see its wonderful, large and ball-shaped umbrellas, which are composed of a large number of more than small flowers.
You can grow onion-sowing seeds by sowing seeds, or propagate by simply dividing the bush into parts (after lubricating the parts with wood ash and slightly drying). Also, when growing onion-brass, a seedling method of growing is often used. They use the seedling method if you need to get the greens as soon as possible, and you forgot about the winter sowing of this onion.
- Growing seedlings of onion-batun
- Sowing seeds of onion
- Seedling Care
- Planting seedlings in open ground
- Soil for onion
- After which crops can I plant onion-batun?
- Sowing of onion-batun in the open ground
- Onion window sill
- Outdoor Onion Care
- Watering Onion
- Topping onion
- Pests and diseases of onion
- Harvesting and storage of onion
- Varieties of onion
Growing seedlings of onion-batun
Sowing seeds of onion
Oddly enough, the cultivation of onion-batun in the seedling method is almost the most reliable option for the reproduction of this plant. The seedling method for producing onion-batun is especially popular in the countries of the East, and this is easily explained. When using the annual culture of cultivation of onion-batun, the probability of plant damage by diseases is significantly reduced, and, of course, the production of green mass on the table is accelerated, which cannot but rejoice.
Usually sowing seeds of onion-batun for seedlings is carried out in the second decade of April, sometimes a little earlier, and they begin to plant seedlings on beds in the second decade of June. This technology for producing onion-batun helps to provide people with fresh herbs in September. During this period, it can be collected together with false bulbs.
Of course, if you want to grow high-quality seedlings of onion-batun, you need to take care of high-quality soil. Usually gardeners make such a mixture - part of the humus and part of the soddy soil are mixed well in equal proportions, after which 150-200 g of wood ash (good potash fertilizer containing about 5% potassium) is put in a ten-liter bucket of the mixture and pour 80-85 there g nitroammophoski, then the composition is most thoroughly mixed. If you didn’t take the ingredients from your own site and you are not sure about them, then it is advisable to decontaminate the resulting composition by steaming in the oven for an hour, but if you are afraid that such an “execution” will kill all possible microbes in the soil composition (as positive, and negative ones), then just pour the composition of a 2 - 3% solution of potassium permanganate.
When the composition is ready and containers with a height of at least 15 cm with holes for drainage in the base and a centimeter-thick drainage layer of pebble for sowing are also ready, it is necessary to start preparing the seeds for sowing. For these purposes, the seeds of onion-brass need to be soaked for 24 hours in melt or rain water, changing the water two times during this period. Further, after removing them from the water, they must be wrapped in a cloth and kept in the bottom shelf of the refrigerator for a couple of days. After this time, it remains to dry the seeds on a dry rag to a state of flowability and can be sown in a box or other container. Sowing seeds of onion-batun should be carried out in a substrate with a seeding in it at 1.5-3 cm, not deeper. The grooves in the drawers are better to be located, 5-6 cm apart from each other. If there are no drawers, then you should not be upset, the seeds can be completely sown in pots measuring only 6-7 cm, five or seven pieces each. By the way, such a sowing has a name - bouquet, and if someone tried to sow like that, then be sure to write in the comments whether it is convenient.
After sowing, the seeds should be lightly, a centimeter and a half, sprinkled with fresh and loose soil, then level the surface and gently roll down, compacting. Further, literally a couple of centimeters of clean river sand can be poured over rolled and compacted soil. Only after this, the seedlings can be watered, naturally, watering should not be carried out from a watering can or can, only a spray bottle is needed here so that all these layers are not washed out and in no case should the seeds be washed to the surface. After watering (liter per square meter, for which it is better to use melt or rain water at room temperature), before emergence, cover the containers with plastic wrap or glass and place them in a room where the temperature would fluctuate from 18 to 21 degrees above zero.
As soon as you see seedlings above the surface of the soil, the film needs to be removed, and the boxes or containers should be transferred to the southern windowsill, but not in a very warm room, ideally, the room should have about 10-11 degrees of heat. After a day, you need to try to maintain in this room in the daytime the temperature is at the level of 14-16 degrees of heat, and at night lower it to 11-13 degrees. In that case, if it is not possible to precisely control the temperature in the room, then you can simply open the windows and doors, the main thing is not to create drafts.
Before the seedlings get stronger, it will be necessary to maintain additional lighting, because at this time the sun rises late, and lays down early, and the seedlings will be corny lack of sunlight. Ideally, the onion-batun needs a 14-hour, i.e. quite a long daylight hours. For these purposes, you can buy a conventional phytolamp or LED lamp and fix it over seedlings of onion-batun so that the height to it is 26-28 cm. In the first three days after the additional lighting is fixed, you must not turn it off at all so that the plants accustomed to such a light, then the backlight can be turned off at six in the morning and turn on at eight in the evening.
They decided with light, now watering. Watering seedlings of onion-batun should be carried out often, but very moderately, neither drying of the soil nor its overmoistening should be allowed.
After about seven days, when seedlings appear above the soil surface, it is necessary to fertilize, first applying 2.5 g of superphosphate dissolved in water per square meter of soil, then 2.5 g of potassium sulfate, also dissolved in water, per square meter the soil. When the first true leaflet appears in seedlings of onion-batun, it is necessary to thin out the seedlings in such a way that there is a distance equal to three centimeters between seedlings.
About ten days before the onion-seedling seedlings are transplanted into the open ground, the seedlings need to be hardened. The easiest way to start is to open the windows and doors more often and each time for a longer period of time. After a couple of days, if a cold snap is not expected, you can try to make seedlings first for the day, and then for the night at the site.
Planting seedlings in open ground
Usually seedlings of onion-batun are planted on a bed without fear in the second decade of June, by this period there is no longer any risk of a return frost, and the soil will be well-heated and loose. Those seedlings that have well-developed roots and three or four fully formed leaflets are fully prepared for planting. Also, for greater certainty, you can examine the thickness of the stem at the base, it should be about five millimeters. The seedling age itself should be equal to two months.
In fact, planting onion-batun is no different from planting seedlings of any vegetable crop. All you need to do is, on the soil prepared according to all the above rules, dig holes 11–13 cm deep in a row and leave a couple of tens of centimeters for row spacing, and then plant seedlings in them. It is advisable to add a handful of wood ash at the base, moisten the soil and place the seedlings strictly vertically, squeezing the soil. Then pour and mulch humus with a layer of one centimeter.
Soil for onion
Onion-batun is good because it is absolutely not picky about heat, like, say, onion. Even if you drop it in a small partial shade, it will still give a good crop. But as for the type of soil, there are vagaries here: the onion-batun loves fertile soil, with plenty of moisture, with a slightly acidic or neutral reaction. Gardeners believe that loam and sandy loam are ideal soils for it.
At home, the onion-batun most often grows in humid and low-lying areas. However, spring and rain water quite often stagnate on such soil, and there it can begin to shoot quickly, therefore, you will not taste its tender leaves.
If there is nothing else to do but plant the onion-sow on acidic soil, then “ennoble” it first: add 250 g of wood ash per square meter of the future bed, and you need to do this at least six months before transplanting. Or even in the fall, add 200 g of lime to the soil for digging.
In general, preparing the soil for onion-batun is a rather responsible matter. Why? This culture is perennial, in one place it can grow not a year or two, but as many as five years. Therefore, in addition to loosening, digging the soil, removing weeds and deoxidizing the soil, it must be enriched by adding 4-6 kg of humus or compost, 18-19 g of potassium sulfate, 32-35 g of superphosphate per square meter (preferably in the fall) about 25 g of ammonium nitrate, all this, of course, under digging.
After which crops can I plant onion-batun?
Predecessors are also an important topic - the onion-baton will grow best if sidereal crops, legumes, tomatoes or cabbage were previously grown on this place, but if garlic, onions, cucumbers, carrots or onions were grown, then it’s better to wait a year least.
Sowing of onion-batun in the open ground
Few people know that onions in open ground can be sown more than once per season, or even two, but three. The most optimal dates are April, June and July, as well as October and November. The late autumn period, which is more correctly called winter winter sowing, is usually carried out for the same purpose as in the spring: it is already very early to get the first greens to the table.
When planting before winter, it’s not worth preparing the site too early, the best option is summer, but as soon as the temperature drops significantly and becomes within a couple of degrees of heat, the seeds can be sown to a depth of the order of a couple of centimeters without any preliminary seedling cultivation, if the soil of the site is heavy, and to a slightly greater depth (3-4 cm), if light, because there they can freeze much faster. The distance between the rows during late autumn sowing can be left unchanged - about two dozen centimeters. After sowing, the site should be well leveled, compacted and necessarily mulched with humus, a layer of a couple of centimeters. Some resourceful gardeners also throw a pair of spruce paws on top - they hold snow well.
As soon as spring arrives, a bed with late-autumn crops of onion-batun must be opened, but not quite. After the humus has been removed, it is necessary to cover the soil (bed) with plastic wrap in order to create a greenhouse effect for the seeds and to grow them faster. It is interesting that if everything turned out well, then the onion, sown in late autumn, the sun begins to sprout almost with the first rays. As soon as the seedlings appear, then after about a week they can safely be thinned.
Onion window sill
Strange as it may seem, but you can grow onion-batun even on an ordinary windowsill, for example, if you either don’t have a piece of land at all or there is no place for this crop on it. It is possible to grow (drive out) a batun on a windowsill right in the middle of a winter cold. All that is required is to dig a two-year or three-year-old plant from the soil in the autumn period (usually October), always with an earthen lump, so as not to damage the roots and plant it in pots and containers with mandatory drainage holes in the base and a drainage layer in the form pebbles, 0.5 cm thick; the capacity itself should be 12-15% wider than the earthen coma of the plant being dug up. Next, a dug plant remains, without destroying the earthen lump, planted in a pot and put into a room with a temperature of about 18-21 degrees heat and humidity at 80%. Usually in a month you will definitely be relishing on fresh herbs of onion-batun.
Outdoor Onion Care
Growing onion-batun is not at all difficult, it is watering, loosening the soil, removing weed vegetation, feeding and protecting against pests and diseases.
The very initial cultivation must be carried out as soon as the seedlings have grown, that is, a week after their appearance on the surface of the soil. During the season, you will need to spend five or six soil loosening in these plants. Loosening the soil can be combined with the removal of weeds in the near-chest zone and near plants. If you do not want to often loosen the soil and remove weeds, then you can mulch the soil surface with a layer of humus with a couple of centimeters.
Onion-batun is considered a moisture-loving culture, therefore, in the natural nature, it settles in places where there is more moisture. For this reason, the soil will have to be moderately, but constantly moistened. Ideally, the soil in an open area should be saturated with moisture to a depth of 17-19 cm.
Of course, it is necessary to take into account the precipitation: for example, if it rains frequently, then watering may not be necessary at all. In normal weather, watering a couple of times a week is enough, and if it is very hot, then in a day. When watering, try to use settled water at room temperature, for example, rainwater from a barrel.
We mentioned little about top dressing. After transplanting seedlings on the bed, it is necessary to add a solution of mullein dissolved in 10 times or diluted 15 times with chicken infusion infusion. Norm - 25-30 g per well when planting seedlings. If the soil is rich, then, as we already wrote, a handful of wood ash, previously moistened with water, is quite enough.
In the future, it can be done only once, because onion-batun well accumulates nitrates. Repeated top dressing can be carried out 10-12 days after the first, after loosening and watering the soil and pouring 50-70 g of wood ash under each bush.
Pests and diseases of onion
It is noticed that on good, nutritious soil, plants practically do not get sick and are not affected by pests, but sometimes this still happens. Often the onion-batun suffers from onion weevil, onion fire and onion flies.
Onion fire literally eats leaves from the inside, leaving only a thin peel. You can use approved insecticides, such as Fufanon, to combat it, but strictly following the instructions on the package.
Onion weevil, - he makes punctures on the leaves of the onion and sucks out the juice from them, and the weevil larvae bite into the leaves and feed on their contents.
Onion fly, - its larvae feed on the contents of the onion-batun bulb.
All of them will be able to kill insecticides, if you strictly adhere to the instructions for their use.
Of the diseases, the onion-striker strikes peronosporosiscovering leaf blades gray violet mold, copper-based preparations, say, HOM, oxychrome and the like, are effective against it, they usually have a couple of treatments.
In order not to let pests in your area at all, you need to observe crop rotation, not to thicken plantings, not to flood plants excessively, fight weeds, loosen the soil and pay attention to plants more often. For example, in the initial stages of the appearance of the mumps, it is necessary to treat the plants with a solution of mustard powder (a tablespoon per bucket of water), and from an onion fly, water the plants a couple of times per season with infusion of potato tops (kilogram of tops per bucket of water, the rate per square meter) or plant nearby a bed with carrots.
Harvesting and storage of onion
As you know, the onion-batun grows for the sake of greenery, in the soil during the season only a thickening is formed, called a false bulb. You can clean the greens from mid-summer to autumn, since the green mass is constantly growing. The next year, when the onion is over a year old, you can start chopping the greens early in the spring as soon as it appears. Stop cutting should be 35-45 days before the onset of cold weather, so that the bulb is prepared for wintering. Thus, in one season, the crop can be harvested from two (on young plants) to four times (on adults).
You can cut the greens as soon as it reaches a height of 18-23 cm. Cutting must be done at the soil surface, after which the leaves must be bundled, cooled and placed in the refrigerator, wrapped in a plastic bag.
In the event that, for some reason, you need to dig out the onion bulbs and keep them in this form until spring, then try to put them in the refrigerator, where the temperature is about a degree, and what is important - do not cut the leaves on the bulbs.
Varieties of onion
In the State register of selection achievements at the moment there are exactly 50 varieties of this culture, of which it is worth paying attention to the new products of 2017: Gulden, Zelenets, Krasny, Puchkovsky, Fist and Chipollino.