Proper planting of gladioli
Gladioli are representatives of the bulbous, which are not considered particularly whimsical. They are especially good in cutting - for a long time they keep a fresh look and brightness of colors. There are certain secrets to growing gladioli, observing which, you can achieve longer flowering and effective reproduction from your flowers. And, first of all, they are associated with the planting of gladioli. How to plant gladioli in the garden, we will tell in the article.
Choosing a place for planting gladioli
Gladioli grow poorly and bloom in shaded places. Therefore, choosing a place for landing, give preference to sunny areas. This not only provides good flowering, but also prevents the development of diseases. The causative agents of most diseases most actively develop in wetlands.
Of course, not at every site you can find a constantly lit place. In this regard, it should be remembered that the shading of gladioli from the east side delays flowering for 15-20 days, while shading from the south - they, in general, may not bloom.
With a constant high standing of groundwater, strangulation of plants can occur, since air does not penetrate the roots. In areas with such conditions for gladioli choose higher places or make a high ridge. In the hot climate zone, ridges cannot be made.
So that only gladiolus plants completely consume moisture from irrigation, it is necessary to plant them at a distance no closer than 3-5 m from trees and other plantings. It is good for shrubs to protect the flower garden from the prevailing north and west winds.
On a poorly selected site, gladioli not only bloom poorly, but also do not form a full corm. As a result, and next year it will not be possible to get good flowers due to poor-quality planting material.
Soil preparation for gladioli
The soil for gladioli is prepared in the fall. The best soils for them are black soil, light loamy and loamy sand. Heavy clay soils, peaty and purely sandy, often found in garden areas, require improvement. Sand is added to peat, peat to sandy soil, sand and peat to clay soil.
For gladioli, a soil with a slightly acidic reaction is preferred — pH 5.5–6.5. Therefore, before planting corms, a soil analysis is done. To do this, in four to five points of the site take a glass of soil and submit for analysis to the agrochemical laboratory. It is better to perform the analysis in the spring. According to its results, the florist can establish not only the acidity of the soil, but also the amount of trace elements in it. With high acidity, quicklime or chalk is added to the soil at the rate of 100-200 g per 1 m².
The soil under gladioli is dug up to a depth of the root system - 45-50 cm. At the same time, all weeds are selected. If possible, legumes are planted in the area designated for these flowers in the previous year. This will improve the structure of the soil and scare away the worst enemy of gladioli - the wireworm.
Gnawing the leaves, the pest destroys plants, especially the baby, spreads the bacteria that cause scab and spores of fungi. Organic residues not selected during digging contribute to the spread of scab. Bacteria and parasitic fungi settle in them, as well as in manure brought into the soil.
In the fall, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are introduced into the soil. Their number is calculated based on the results of soil analysis and the selected plant nutrition system (see the corresponding section). Since it is difficult to make soil analysis for beginning gardeners, it is possible to introduce nitrophoska into the soil at the rate of 30 g per 1 sq. m. Chernozem soil in the fall of fertilizers can not be refueled.
To simplify maintenance work, ridges with a width of 1-1.2 m of arbitrary length are prepared. So that during irrigation water does not drain from the ridges, they can be edged around the perimeter with boards, slate, plastic, stone tiles. In the spring, they again dig the soil onto one bayonet of a shovel and select the remaining weeds. Under digging, nitrogen fertilizers are applied, for example, urea - 15 g per 1 m.
Preparation of planting material for gladioli
Two to three weeks before planting, the corms are cleaned of scales. Do this carefully, as under them may be young seedlings that are easy to break off. If the baby’s shell is cleaned, then lightly press it with two fingers, and then remove the scales with a fingernail. It is necessary to clean it, as parasitic microorganisms and thrips nest in the scales. In addition, on peeled corms it is easier to detect signs of disease and to disinfect planting material in time.
The baby is cleaned on the eve of planting so that it does not dry out. If the baby under the shell is sick, dry, with black dots, it is thrown away. To prevent the spread of disease, all waste planting material is burned.
The peeled corms are sprouted up to the vernalization, like potatoes. This event promotes better flowering and less susceptibility of plants to diseases at the beginning of growth.
Planting material purchased in a store or on the market is treated for diseases and pests. In the garden, it is better not to use chemicals for this. It is good to withstand corms and a baby in an infusion of garlic (250-300 g per 10 liters of water) for 2 hours.
Garlic acts both on pathogens and plant pests. It is passed through a meat grinder, pour 10 liters of water. Planting material is immersed in the resulting infusion not only before planting, but also after excavation. In spring, a solution of a lower concentration (300 g per 10 l) is prepared, in the fall - a larger solution (500 g per 10 l). For processing during excavation, the concentration can be further increased by taking up to 1 kg of garlic per 10 liters of water.
If there is no garlic, planting material is treated with a solution of potassium permanganate - from pathogens, kalbofosa - from pests. In spring, in a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g of potassium permanganate per 10 l of water), then in a solution of malathion (30 g per 10 l of water) corms and a baby are kept for 30 minutes. In autumn, take a stronger solution of potassium permanganate (5-10 g of potassium permanganate per 10 l of water) and incubated for 30-60 minutes.
The karbofos solution is of the same concentration as in the spring, and the material is kept in it for the same time. After disinfection before planting, the material can be treated with growth stimulants and microelements for faster root development. Usually use one of the following drugs, based on 10 liters of water:
- heteroauxin - one tablet;
- sodium gummat - 1 g;
- succinic acid - 2 g.
Planting material is kept in a solution of a growth stimulator for 10-12 hours.
Microelement solutions for processing planting material can be of various compositions. To soak the corms before planting, it is better to use the recommendations of A. N. Gromov (Table 1). The processing time of the material in the recommended composition is 12-14 hours.
Table 1. Doses of microfertilizers for the treatment of corms
|Microfertilizer||Dose per 10 l of water, g|
|Potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate)||2|
|Copper Sulfate (Copper Sulfate)||3|
|Cobalt nitrate (cobalt nitrate)||0,8-1,0|
|Zinc Sulphate (Zinc Sulfate)||0,5-0,7|
Tab. 2. Doses of microfertilizers for the treatment of tubers
|Microfertilizers||Dose per 10 l of water|
|Potassium permanganate||5 g|
|Copper sulphate||4 g|
|Cobalt nitrate||1 g|
Table 2 shows the doses of micronutrient fertilizers recommended by T. G. Tamberg for the preparation of a solution for soaking tubers before planting. Processing time - 4 hours.
The author prefers to soak the corms and the baby in the combined solution of ammonium molybdate (2 g) and copper sulfate (5 g) in 10 l of water for 2 hours before planting, and immediately plant it.
When and how to plant gladioli?
Planting begins when the soil at a depth of 10 cm warms up to 8-10 ºС. It is necessary to clearly capture this point, since the delay in planting leads to a loss of moisture in the soil, which will adversely affect the development of corms and delay flowering.
It is more expedient, first of all, to plant corms and a baby of new, especially valuable varieties, which it is advisable to quickly propagate. Planting is performed in the sand, which at the first stage of plant development will protect the corms, the baby and their tender young roots from contact with the soil. To do this, sand is poured into a dug groove or hole with a layer of 1-2 cm, plant corms or a baby and plant sand and then soil again on top.
To facilitate the care of plants, corms and a baby plant in rows along or across the ridge. The location of individual copies of planting material in a row and the distance between rows may vary depending on the size of corms, the power of the variety and the tasks set by the grower during cultivation.
When placing plants, it must also be taken into account that the greater the distance between plants, the better the nutritional conditions and the less chance of infection by diseases from a neighboring plant. The smallest distances between large corms in a row are 15 cm, between rows - 20, for a child - 5 and 15 cm, respectively.
Planting depth depends on soil composition and corm size. Planting material with a diameter of 4-5 cm (the one that gives peduncles of the best quality) is planted to a depth of 10-12 cm. On sandy and chernozem soils, the planting depth can be increased to 15 cm, on clay and boggy soils, reduce to 7-9 cm. this must be remembered that finely planted corms often get sick. Therefore, should not be planted smaller than 7 cm.
The flower grower will not be mistaken if he plantes a corm on a depth equal to its three diameters: it is obvious that the smaller one will have to be planted finer, the larger one deeper. Small corms during deep planting may not germinate due to lack of air access. The baby is planted to a depth of 3-5 cm.
Landing can be along the ridge and across. In any case, pre-excavated soil is leveled with a rake. Then, marking the direction of the row, make a groove of the required depth or hole across or along the ridge at a distance calculated for planting corms or babies.
Before planting, it is good to introduce nitrophoska 3-4 cm below the bottom of the corm on the basis of 1-2 g for each or other planting fertilizer. During planting, the grooves and wells are watered with water so that the soil is moist and does not take moisture from the planting material.
Questions and answers about planting gladioli
Is it possible to plant gladioli in the winter?
For the formation of the root system, gladioli need low positive temperatures (10-15 ° C), active shoot growth occurs at 20-25 ° C. However, in order for the corms to develop well, their preliminary storage at temperatures of about 3-9 ° C is necessary. During this period, the root system is not yet formed, so low temperatures can not delay the development of the plant.
Corms can withstand not only low positive temperatures, but also short-term negative ones, but their development is delayed. Large corms die at minus 2 ° C. Therefore, landing under the winter is possible only in the southern regions with shelter to create a wintering regime similar to the storage regime.
A child with a hard, dense shell is easier to tolerate low temperatures, which can be observed in warm winters in the Non-Chernozem zone. In such cases, it can withstand a temperature drop of minus 4 ° C.
Those flower growers who provide conditions on the site that protect the soil from freezing, plant gladioli and in the winter.
Is it possible to grow gladioli by the New Year and by March 8?
It is possible, but for normal plant growth in winter, additional lighting is necessary, maintaining a certain temperature of air and soil, humidity and good air exchange - airing. All this is difficult to provide in the living room.
In specially equipped greenhouses blooming gladioli receive by any time. However, the process of preparing planting material and cultural conditions are very complex. For example, in order to get a cut by March 8, corms are dug up early, for cuts by the New Year, corms of the previous year's crop are preserved under certain conditions.
The staff of the Main Botanical Garden in Moscow developed a light culture of gladioli. Articles describing their methods at different times were published in the journal Floriculture.
How to make gladioli bloom not all at once?
There are several ways:
- plant at one time corms of varieties with different flowering periods;
- plant at one time corms of the same variety;
- plant at one time unequal in size corms of the same variety, since plants from small planting material bloom later than from large ones.
Is it possible to cut a corm with two sprouts?
Corms with two sprouts are cut if they want to propagate any variety and get a lot of flowering plants. Cut vertically, making sure that part of the bottom is preserved on both halves. Immediately after the operation, the section is sprinkled with powdered coal or poured with brilliant green and planted.
Is it possible to plant a baby with a cracked shell?
You can plant such a baby if she is not affected by fungal and bacterial diseases, which can be seen when examining the tuber.
During the winter, the corms dried out very much. What should be done with them before boarding?
A healthy corm will never dry. If she wrinkled, became hard, then, undoubtedly, she was struck by some disease. If the corm is stored at an elevated temperature, it may dry out a bit, but remain healthy. Such corms are soaked for several hours before planting in a warm solution of drinking soda (one teaspoon per 1 liter of water). However, it is better to soak the planting material in a solution of trace elements (see table. 2).
I bought an interesting variety. How to multiply it faster?
If a baby is bought, then it is necessary to increase the growing season for her, that is, plant early in a greenhouse, under a film or in boxes at home. If there is one or more corms, then before planting, they are cut into several parts so that each part has one kidney and part of the base.
Is it possible to plant a baby in a shell without cleaning it?
You can plant in the shell, but the baby will not grow longer. To accelerate germination, it is soaked for 24 hours in a warm 0.2% solution of potassium permanganate or 0.1% drinking soda before planting. After planting the kids, it is good to water the area and cover with film until seedlings appear.
How to plant gladioli so as not to confuse young and old corms?
It is better to plant a baby and corms on different ridges. Plants from a baby planted separately develop better.
Author: V. A. Lobaznov “Gladiolus”.