Fresh dill on the table all summer
Spicy aromatic herbs on the dining table are not only decoration. The most delicate aroma of dill causes appetite. This spicy aromatic culture is widespread across all continents and is especially revered by lovers of delicate aromas of natural snacks, salads, side dishes. In dishes and winter preparations, for therapeutic purposes, leaves, stems, roots, inflorescences, seeds are used. In this article we will talk about the agricultural technology of dill - sowing, care, especially the cultivation of bush dill.
- The history of dill cultivation
- The content of nutrients in dill
- Biological features of dill
- Dill sowing dates
- Varieties of dill
- Agrotechnics growing dill
- Features of growing bush dill
- Diseases and pests of dill
The history of dill cultivation
Dill refers to annual crops of the group of green, spicy-aromatic or spicy-flavoring plants. The root root, openwork foliage and delicate aroma of fresh herbs distinguish it from other plants of this group.
The culture is known and used for food purposes in Russia from the distant X century, but even today summer residents complain about its strange peculiarity. It easily multiplies and forms good yields of green mass in spring and autumn, and in the summer often leaves hosts without favorite greens. Changing varieties, sowing time, seed placement depth, maintaining optimal watering do not have a noticeable effect on the crop. A clue is nearby. And it is associated with the genetic memory of the plant.
Dill odorous or garden - the only species of dill family with a short life cycle. Some botanists tend to classify it as a mustard genus and are called mustard plaster. People call dill, coper, copra.
The homeland is considered the Mediterranean. Dill has spread and grows everywhere. Known for more than 5000 years and was used by Egyptian doctors of that time as a medicinal plant that relieves headaches (migraines).
According to the Bible, the Pharisees paid tithing in parts of dill (seeds, leaves and stems). Today, on every patch of private land, dill necessarily grows, which since the Middle Ages has been considered protection from witchcraft and curses.
The content of nutrients in dill
All dill organs contain useful substances, but especially a lot of them in fresh leaves. Along with carotene, dill plants contain vitamins “C”, “B”, “PP”, flavonoids, and mineral salts. The therapeutic basis of dill is essential oil, which includes carvone, fellandren, limonene. They give a characteristic pungent smell to the plant.
In folk medicine, dill is used for many diseases and ailments. The importance of its medicinal properties was also appreciated by pharmacists, having developed a number of drugs that are recommended for the treatment of chronic coronary insufficiency, to prevent angina attacks, relieve colic in patients with gastritis ("Anetin"). For infant colic, “Dill Water” is used.
Doctors recommend using infusions of leaves and stems in the initial stages of hypertension, as a diuretic, wound healing, relieving allergic skin itching, antihemorrhoidal and other indications. In the perfumery and cosmetic industry, dill seed essential oil is used in the manufacture of toothpastes, colognes, creams.
Biological features of dill
The main biological feature of dill is its relation to the length of daylight. Dill is a typical long day plant. With its duration of 10-14 hours, only the vegetative part of plants is formed (growth of leaf mass). In the genetic memory of dill, it was recorded that lengthening of daylight hours over 14 hours is a sign of completion of development. Therefore, with an excess of 14 hours, plants rapidly form generative organs (flowers, inflorescences, fruits, seeds).
In early spring and with the onset of autumn, when the duration of the light period ranges from 10-14 hours, the most optimal period for the development of the aboveground vegetative mass. Due to the long day in the summer, dill can immediately go into bloom. Keep this in mind when sowing early varieties with a short growing season in the late stages.
Since it is fresh greens that contain the largest amount of essential oils and other useful substances, it is advisable to create a conveyor for obtaining fresh dill crops in the garden. There are several ways to achieve this:
- repeating the sowing of one variety after 10-12 days,
- regulating the receipt of fresh greens by sowing varieties of different precocity,
- combining the frequency of sowing and varieties of dill.
Dill sowing dates
Upon the onset of biological ripeness, dill is divided into early, middle and late varieties. Regulating the receipt of fresh greens varieties, use the following technique:
- in March-April and July-early August (depending on the region) sow only late varieties in the accepted frequency,
- in late May - early June, switch to sowing early varieties.
Such a strategy, coupled with a varietal feature, will help to have fresh greens on the table and inflorescences for use in processing products throughout the entire warm period. Moreover, self-seeding, even during the onset of cold weather, will provide another crop of greenery.
Varieties of dill
Dill can be cleaned once and repeatedly in technical (for greens) and biological ripeness for seeds (in inflorescences). The vegetative period of early varieties lasts from germination to harvesting the green mass 32-55 days, and to the phase of the green umbrella 55-70 days. Medium varieties have a growing season of 35-55 and 56-99 days, respectively. Later varieties form a green mass suitable for harvesting within 38-52 days, and for winter harvesting 62-104 days.
Early varieties of dill
- Gribovsky and Further differ in precocity and strong aroma;
- Umbrella, forms lateral shoots in a sufficiently large amount.
- Hanak, Czech variety with a large raised rosette of surface leaves;
- Kaskelensky and Borea form leaves with a bluish tinge;
- Lesnogorodskydiffers in resistance to diseases;
- Patterns - has a pronounced green color of the leaves;
- Salute - forms large outlets and side shoots, which provides a significant harvest of greenery and its multiple harvesting. It is interesting in that in Central Russia it does not bloom, but gives only greenery, but with multiple sowing in one place it gets sick.
Late ripening varieties
- Anna - elegant strongly dissected leaves with a grayish-green color;
- Qibray - different yellowish shade of green leaves,
- Uzbek-243 - tall plants with good foliage. Leaves of green coloring.
Shrub varieties of dill late ripe
In the 90s of the twentieth century, breeders obtained varieties with a different structure of the aboveground mass. Shrub varieties are distinguished by the formation of several shortened stems, which allows to obtain a larger yield of green mass. A long growing season (40-135 days) and cuttings for greens (14-25 days) provide a fresh product during the longest light days when ordinary varieties go into the rapid formation and maturation of inflorescences.
Technical maturity of bush varieties occurs on 40-45 days, and biological - on 110-135 days. In spring crops, the duration of harvesting for greens lasts from 14 to 35 days.
The most common bush late varieties are:
- Alligator - leaves with a bluish tint, covered with a thin layer of wax coating. Highly productive. One bush provides up to 100-150 g of green products;
- Salute - characterized by the longest growing season. Technical ripeness (leaves on greens) occurs on 40-45 days. Forms dark green leaves, the harvest of which can last up to 25 days;
- Buyan - differs in the longest period from germination to harvesting for greens (58-65 days). The leaves are dark green, fragrant.
Agrotechnics growing dill
For a good development of the aerial mass, dill requires light, well-aerated soil with high permeability. Plants cannot stand stagnation of water. With stagnant phenomena, the leaves from the petioles to the base of the leaf blade have a reddish hue, and the plants significantly slow down the growth of the aerial mass. With increased acidity, seedlings are late, and the growth of aboveground mass is limited.
Dill needs soils with a neutral acidity reaction.
Dill is undemanding to growing conditions. Sowing of seeds begins when the soil is heated in a 10 cm layer to +3 .. + 5 ° C. Shoots do not die when the temperature drops to -3 ° C. Optimal for the development of plants - within +8 .. + 10 ° С. The onset of temperature above + 15 ° C causes a rapid transition to the formation of inflorescences.
Shoots when sown with dry seeds appear on 10-20 days and in the first period (10-12 days) grow slowly. When sparse standing noticeably oppressed by weeds. Sowing must be kept clean, the soil moist and loose.
- Dill loves lighted places. Even a slight shadow causes stretching of the plant with low leafiness of the stems, pale color of the leaves.
- When preparing for dill, you can not liming the soil and make ash.
Precursors and compatibility with other vegetables
- When grown in culture, good predecessors for dill are cucumbers, cabbage, tomatoes, legumes, and beets. You can not grow dill after parsley, celery, carrots.
- Dill can be grown in the second turn after the early harvested crops (early potatoes, garlic, onions, early cabbage). It develops well in thickened plantings with other vegetable crops (spinach, salads, onions, garlic, cabbage). Better compatibility with cucumbers and zucchini.
Dill is an early culture. Therefore, the soil is being prepared for sowing in the autumn. The site is freed from the remnants of the precursor and weeds. Under digging, a mature humus or compost is made (especially on infertile soils) of 0.5-1.0 bucket and nitrophos 25-30 g / sq. m
On medium-rich soils, instead of nitrophoska, phosphorus-potassium fat can be added - superphosphate and potassium salt at the rate of 25-30 and 15-20 g / sq., Respectively. m of land area. On fat soils, only phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied. This is due to the ability of dill to accumulate nitrates. With a close occurrence of groundwater under dill, beds are prepared in the fall.
Dill seeds contain essential oils that prevent rapid germination. Therefore, the seeds can withstand 2-3 days in warm water, replacing it every 4-6 hours, and then dried in the room to flow. Germination accelerates the emergence of seedlings by 10-12 days, seedlings appear on 7-8 days. When sowing dry - for 15-20 days.
For sowing, different schemes are used:
- two and five lowercase,
- furrow and others
With a row - the distance between the rows is 30-40 cm, in the row - 3-4 cm. The sowing depth is no more than 2-3 cm on light soils and 1.5-2.0 cm on medium and heavy.
If dill will be simultaneously used for greens and in the last cut for pickling, it is better to sow with ribbons. The distance between the lines in the tape is 20-30 cm, and between the tapes 40-50 cm.
An interesting experience is sowing with a furrow. A board 5 cm wide to a depth of 2-3 cm is pressed into the leveled, watered area after 10-12 cm. A 5 cm furrow with a flat base is obtained. Dill seeds are scattered along the bottom of the furrow and covered with humus or earth.
For winter sowing, as in early spring, dry seeds are used. Later crops are usually performed with germinated material.
After sowing in any way, dill is not watered to shoots. After emergence, the first loosening of a 5-7 cm layer is carried out, the subsequent loosening is deepened to 8-12 cm. In the phase of 3-4 real leaves, the first thinning is carried out by 3-5 cm between the plants.
In rows left on the seeds, the plants are thinned out immediately by 8-10 cm. If the crops are thickened, the thinning is repeated after 5-7 days. Upon reaching the plants 10-15 cm tall, dill begin to be cut into greens. The maximum aroma of dill reaches before laying the inflorescences.
The older the plant, the stronger the aroma. The main care consists in loosening with the simultaneous destruction of weeds. Before the final harvest, it is necessary to weed out the millet and bristles, as their seeds are poorly separated from dill during winnowing and sifting.
Early varieties in the summer do not feed. Dill is enough autumn fertilizer soil filling. On depleted (especially with a slow growth of leaves), in the phase of 2-3 real leaves, one top dressing with nitrophose or urea is carried out no more than 10-15 g / sq. area.
Middle and late ripening varieties with a long growing season are fed twice. The first feeding is carried out in the same phase and the same norm as the early varieties, and the second after 20-25 days with a solution of urea with potassium salt in a dose of 20 and 15 g, respectively, per 10 liters of water per 3-4 square meters. m landing. When feeding, avoid getting the solution on the plants. After top dressing, the plants are thoroughly washed and watered abundantly.
The entire vegetation period before harvesting crops are kept in a wet state. Overdrying of the soil leads to a suspension of development, coarsening of the leaves and the accumulation of nitrates in them. Excessive watering leads to a decrease in the concentration of essential oils, dill loses its main charm - aroma. Dill is watered 1-2 times a week. In hot, dry weather, you can carry out fine misty watering of plants in order to create the optimal microclimate.
Features of growing bush dill
Features of the biological structure of dill bush determine its technology of sowing and cultivation. The aboveground mass of varieties of bush dill forms lateral shoots in the axils of the leaves, which gives it the appearance of a bush. Upon reaching 4-6 cm they are broken out and eaten.
In bush varieties, the habitus is 1.5-3.0 m high and about a meter in volume. The foliage of the shoots is good. In order for the plant to form a bush, sufficient space is needed. Therefore, in plants of these varieties, the distance between rows is 35-40 cm. Seeds during sowing are planted at 1.5-3.0 cm, leaving a distance between them of 5-6 cm.
With such a density of sowing after germination, 3 thinning is carried out. The first thinning, when the plants rise by 6 cm, and 2 and 3 as they shade each other. After the third thinning, the distance between the bushes should be 25-30 cm. The leaves of the bush varieties are large, the leaf blade can reach 25-40 cm in length. The bottom basal rosette of leaves is thick.
When sown in open ground, the seeds of bush varieties in the middle lane do not ripen. To get seeds, dill is grown through seedlings. Sowing seedlings is carried out in a film greenhouse or under a frame in March - April. In open ground, seedlings are transferred at the end of May. Soil preparation and outdoor care are identical to garden dill.
Diseases and pests of dill
Among the diseases, the most common are true and downy mildew. Less often, plants are affected by a black leg. With excessive watering, dill affects root rot, curly leaves, vascular bacteriosis and other diseases.
Trichodermin protects against different types of growth and rot; phytosporin protects against the black leg. A unique drug is the biofungicide "Mikosan-B", which provides effective protection against several fungal diseases during the entire growing season.It is absolutely safe for humans. Products can be consumed on the second day after processing. In hot and dry weather, the effectiveness of its effect on the disease does not decrease. There is one feature. This biological product is not used in the vast majority of tank mixtures. Do not take chances!
Of the pests, damage is caused by aphids, umbrella and earthen fleas. Aphids (in small quantities) can be washed off with a stream of water. From fleas, phytosporin is effective. It is enough to spray plants and soil. Phytosporin is easily combined with other biofungicides in tank mixtures. But still, an additional compatibility check will not hurt.
Application, norms and processing period are indicated on packages with biological products or in accompanying recommendations.
Harvesting in technical ripeness for greens is carried out at a plant height of 10-20 cm and can be single or reusable. With a one-time cleaning, the plants are washed with water and cut into 2-3 cm of the stump. Use fresh, dried, frozen.
Dill umbrellas for pickling are harvested during flowering - the beginning of seed set. Lovers often clean umbrellas with shaped green seeds.
Umbrellas are removed for seeds during the period of mass browning of the central part of the inflorescence and they are ripened on the litter in the shade. Plants are cut gradually as the technical ripeness of the seeds in the umbrellas sets in. The ripened material is threshed.
Seeds are dried and stored in a dry place in cloth bags. Seed germination is 3-4 years. When drying, many seeds from the umbrellas are lost. Samosev (if you do not touch the soil with autumn preparation) provides an early harvest of greens for the next spring.