10 basic rules for the care of indoor vines
Creepers are a special category of indoor plants. With flexible long shoots, powerful or elegant, indoor climbers allow you to raise landscaping to a new level. They are grown in ampoules and on supports, on green walls and in cascades, used for masking and even for dividing space. Creepers do not become a true decoration of the interior without careful care. These are stably ornamental plants that depend on their hosts even more than bushy grassy stars.
In the cultivation of indoor vines there are many nuances and subtleties. Plants, the length of the shoots of which allows experimenting with forms and methods of gardening, need a little more attention than ordinary potted plants. After all, with vines pruning, pinching shoots, controlling the pace and direction of growth, the timely direction of the supports are perhaps the most important in care.
But the basic procedures, top dressing and watering, for these crops determine the degree of decorativeness for many years. Most vines with moisture problems drop part of the leaves, they expose the lower part of the shoots, and too abundant or poor feeding irreversibly lead to impaired growth and development.
And capricious creepers depend on air humidity more than usual perennials. But at the same time, lianas are one of the most stable, durable, reliable options for landscaping. Most often they, in addition to basic care, error-free, do not require any extra effort.
Creepers are constantly adding in volume, opening up new possibilities, and are suitable for beginners and experienced gardeners. Creepers require regular, systemic care and gratefully respond to attention and care. In their cultivation there are general rules that should not be forgotten in any circumstances.
1. Individual approach
Each liana is unique and requires its own special care program. And the easiest way to avoid mistakes is by documenting the schedule of procedures and plant features. A small plate or tag on the pot with general information about preferences, an indicator of the degree of moisture, a log of fertilizing, watering and replanting is the best way to not only provide the plant with everything that it needs, but also the easiest way to identify and analyze your mistakes in time.
Responsibly come already is to the choice of plants, not being guided only by the impulse or external effect. Creepers, even if we are talking about elegant ampels - plants that bring into the house for many years. Studying the information, checking the information provided by the seller, assessing your capabilities and characteristics of the house compared to the preferences of the plants will help you immediately start getting to know the climber correctly. And after observing the quarantine period, keeping in average conditions, the plant adapts to the interior quickly and painlessly.
The most important aspect of an individual approach is trimming. It is carried out purely on the recommendation for each individual species and after a thorough analysis of the state of the plant itself. But watering, and top dressing, and transplanting, and even the choice of conditions should be selected after studying the requirements of a particular plant.
2. Watering stages = developmental stages
The need for moisture in all indoor plants changes with the change in the stage of development and season. And for vines it is important to observe not just a regular watering schedule, but the rule of irrigation correction, depending on changes in moisture requirements.
During the period of active growth, all vines need much more water than in the dormant period. Waterlogging in the summer and during the active build-up of young shoots of the vine can forgive, and in winter it will never pass without a trace. With droughts, the opposite is true - in winter they affect less than in summer. For any lianas, the complete drying out of an earthen coma is a phenomenon that should be avoided. If, as a result of a combination of circumstances, the earthen lump has dried up severely, then instead of restarting irrigation, it is necessary to saturate the soil with moisture by immersion, letting all the excess water drain.
The most reliable way to avoid the difficulties associated with improper irrigation is to constantly check the degree of soil drying. For each houseplant, there is also a clarification in the recommendations for watering how much the substrate should dry between the procedures.
And a few more nuances of watering for indoor vines:
- creepers prefer morning watering;
- water is drained from pallets;
- reduction and resumption of heavy irrigation is carried out smoothly, and not sharply, trying to adapt the plant gradually;
- the water temperature for vines should not be equal to the temperature of the air and substrate, but should exceed it by several degrees, especially during active growth;
- lianas are sensitive to water characteristics and the guidelines for each type of irrigation with soft or standing water should not be ignored;
- When watering creepers, you should try not to soak the base of the shoots and avoid any wetting of the leaves.
3. Humidity directly determines the condition of the leaves
Indoor vines have a very large vegetative mass. A huge number of shoots and leaves leads to the fact that the plant becomes more sensitive to deviations of air humidity from comfortable indicators. If moisture differences, short-term periods of dry air can be compensated for in other plants, then vines usually react immediately, starting from the drying of the ends of the leaves and ending with a violation of growth. The more moisture-loving the liana, the more carefully you need to control the indicators.
For all, without exception, vines, except for species with pubescent leaves, spraying is an obligatory point in care. Refreshing leaves, increasing humidity, it also saves plants from overheating and allows you to more fully compensate for the rate of moisture evaporation. Vines are always sprayed in the morning and never in the sun.
Spraying is carried out only when kept at room or higher temperatures. For vines that do not tolerate dry air, only spraying can not do. They can be supplemented or replaced by the installation of humidifiers - pallets with wet moss or expanded clay, special devices.
4. Hygiene is important, regardless of size
Whatever vine, even the most gigantic one, is discussed, plants must be protected from the accumulation of dust and dirt. At least once a week, choosing a method in accordance with the characteristics of the leaves, dust should be removed from the plant. If the size allows and the liana has glossy leaves, it is not afraid of getting wet, it is better to arrange a shower.
Careful examinations are important for indoor vines to the same extent as any other care facility. As part of the measures for spraying or cleaning plants, they regularly take care of regular leaf examinations. Paying attention to the state of the back of the leaves and shoots, it is worth noting any deviations from the norm, including color changes. Even if there are no signs of diseases and pests, timely identification of problems will allow you to quickly adjust care.
All creepers are dependent on access to fresh air. The stagnation of air flow, the absence of circulating air leads not only to a greater accumulation of pollution, but also maximizes the risk of infection by pests. The rooms in which the lianas are located should be regularly ventilated, protecting plants from temperature extremes and drafts. If the creepers do not belong to the most capricious species, it is advisable to place them for the summer if not in the garden, then on the open balcony, where they can be fully content with fresh air.
5. Loosening, as for garden plants
For indoor vines, you need to periodically loosen the soil, preventing compaction and maintaining optimal air and water permeability. It is especially important to renew the structure of the upper broach of the substrate for large plants that are transplanted not annually.
Over time, in the absence of loosening, actively growing vines suffer not only from compaction, but even corking of the soil, but also from its contamination. With regular loosening, soil problems can be prevented, and plant debris removed in a timely manner. In loosening the substrate for indoor vines, there are rules:
- conduct it superficially, to a depth of not more than 1.5 cm;
- the soil must be loosened very carefully, at the walls of the pot, taking care not to touch either the shoots or the roots of the plant.
6. Micro and macro elements are equally important
It is difficult to make a mistake in dressing for indoor vines: in order for a plant to receive all the nutrients it needs, it is enough to follow the instructions on the type of fertilizer, frequency and period of dressing. But in the care of indoor vines they often make one serious mistake - they choose fertilizers, considering only the ratio of macronutrients.
For plants with active growth of large vegetative mass, trace elements are no less important than nitrogen, potassium, or phosphorus. For any signs of a lack of certain substances, additional top dressing should be carried out immediately, and in choosing the type of fertilizer it is best to always give preference to preparations specially designed for vines or complex complex compounds.
For climbers, calcium is important, which ensures the growth and formation of young shoots, magnesium, which allows to maintain the uniform beauty of colors, iron, which is also responsible for the growth and quality of leaves, as well as sulfur, copper, molybdenum, manganese.
For vines, it is undesirable to use long-acting fertilizers: the risk of uneven assimilation of nutrients is significantly higher than that of other indoor plants. It is better to lower the concentration of fertilizers for climbers, but to carry out the procedures more often than to apply top-dressing.
7. Transplantation is carried out only on demand.
Only young vines are transplanted annually. The older and larger the plant, especially if it is formed on supports that are difficult to transfer to other containers, the less often you will have to transplant, pulling it off until the roots completely absorb the substrate.
If the vines grow quickly, the roots appear in the holes after a few months, and the plant itself does not tolerate too spacious containers, do not wait for a favorable period for transplantation in the new spring, and transplant then and as often as necessary, up to several times a year .
8. A healthy vine begins with a quality substrate
The soil for lianas is selected individually according to the required reaction, composition and ratio of components. But there are still general criteria for the substrate in which indoor climbers are grown. The soil should be nutritious, breathable, loose in texture, not prone to compaction over time, rather rough, permeable.
The soil structure is determined by the type of root system, choosing light substrates for plants with thin and weak roots, medium - for fast-growing vines and heavy - for shrub vines with lignified shoots and powerful rhizomes grown in the largest containers.
For any creeper, loosening and disinfecting additives are welcome - charcoal, wood ash, moss, bark, vermiculite, perlite, expanded clay, etc.
Vines require high drainage bookmarks. The risk of waterlogging of the soil even with the most careful care of vines, especially ampels, is much higher than that of ordinary potted plants. Due to drainage, many problems can be prevented, conditions stabilized, and containers can be lightened if grown in hanging planters.
9. Transplantation must be carried out with caution
Before the transplant, it is worth assessing the condition of the plant itself and its capabilities. Large vines due to the large weight (and often medium-sized indoor climbers), you can’t normally transplant yourself. The number of working hands should allow not only to cope with a heavy earthen lump, but also to protect all shoots and leaves from injuries.
Transplanting all vines without exception is best done with minimal contact with the roots. Only the contaminated topsoil and freely crumbling soil are removed from the earthen coma. If it is necessary to completely replace the soil, then the earthen lump is carefully loosened, and the roots are kept in a weak solution of fungicides (at least potassium permanganate).
When exposing the root system, roots that are too long are cut, all damaged or dry areas are removed. In plants with a very dense root lump, formed as a result of a prolonged absence of transplantation and resulting in an almost complete absence of soil inside the root coil, longitudinal sections are made. Even if the liana is not capricious, the absence of unnecessary root injuries will allow it to adapt more quickly and grow.
The day before the transplant, the vine is watered to simplify the procedure. It is necessary to act during the transplant quickly, not allowing the roots to dry out. It is advisable to control the depth of the plant, keeping it the same and making sure that the root neck is located below the edge of the pot by about 2-3 cm, which will allow replacing the topsoil in the future without replanting.
The liana should be located exactly in the middle of the pot, without displacement, which can lead to loss of stability of the container as the plant develops. The substrate is poured in small portions, leaving it loose and not tamping too much.
10. Delicate handling is the most important thing after a transplant.
Any transplant of indoor vines is completed with abundant watering. Spend it, saturating the substrate with small portions of water, for high-quality and uniform hydration. The next watering is carried out only after the substrate dries to the degree recommended for each plant (usually in the upper 2-3 cm). The usual irrigation schedule does not resume immediately.
Top dressing during this period can lead to serious root injuries and problems with the growth of the vine.
After transplantation, plants are not fed for 2-4 weeks, during which nutrients contained in the soil are quite enough. Top dressing during this period can lead to serious root injuries and problems with the growth of the vine.
In order for the liana to quickly adapt and resume growth after transplanting, the plant needs to create conditions similar to quarantine after purchase - soft, appropriate, but more delicate lighting. Increased or at least stable humidity also improves the adaptation process.
After the signs of new growth appear, the liana is transferred to the usual conditions. Before putting the plant in its place in the room, it is worth checking the condition of the leaves and shoots and be sure to add soil if its level is very sagging in the pots.