Carnation - Zeus Flower
Carnation is one of the favorite plants in different countries since ancient times. People were treated for carnations with diseases of carnations, red carnations were kept in the house and taken with them on the road to protect them from misfortunes.
According to ancient Greek legend, red carnation was once a particle of man. Among different nations, cloves are considered a symbol of goodness and justice, constancy and fidelity.
Cloves, Latin - Dianthos. The genus Carnation includes about 400 species; many beautiful varieties are bred. The generic name of the carnation "Dianthus" (Dianthus) is translated from Greek as "flower of the gods."
Carnations are perennial, biennial and annual flowering plants of the clove family. Carnations have a grassy or semi-lignified, smooth, knotty stem. Linear elongated leaves opposite; green, bluish or bluish.
The flowers of various carnations are single or collected in inflorescences, small or relatively large, simple or double, with a delicate aroma or odorless, with smooth or dissected ends of the petals. Particularly attractive cloves with double flowers often have corrugated, spectacularly curved, fringed petals.
In natural carnations, corollas of simple flowers consist of five free petals, white or brightly colored (more often - in pink in different shades).
In carnations of cultural forms, the color of the flowers is more diverse: in addition to white and pink, they are cream, salmon, yellow, red, purple and even multicolor. There are types and varieties of carnations with contrasting circles in the center of the flower, with a contrasting rim along the edges of the petals, with contrasting dots and strokes on the petals.
The carnation is a multi-seeded box with flat black seeds.
Depending on the characteristics of the species, clove seeds can be sown in spring (for seedlings or in open ground), in summer and autumn.
The following species are the most common in floriculture: Turkish or bearded cloves (D. barbatus), Chinese cloves (D. chinensis), pinnate cloves (D. plumarius), Dutch or garden cloves (D. caryophyllus).
Dutch carnation has a wide variety of plants, so they are combined into five main garden groups: Shabo, grenadine, dwarf, American, souvenir de Malmaison.
Location: carnations prefer a sunny location. Very fragile young and adult plants that have reached the flowering stage are very sensitive to winter temperature fluctuations, especially between day and night hours. For planting valuable and rare varieties, it is desirable to create elevated areas.
The soil: require fertile, non-acidic, loamy garden soil. They do not tolerate waterlogging, and especially water stagnation.
A serious danger lies in the cloves in early spring, when the temperature changes sharply during the day: the sun warms up during the day, and starts to freeze at night. Therefore, non-frost-resistant varieties from the fall are covered with spruce so that the branches create a vault over the plants. Shelter is removed after regular frosts. Varietal cloves react very positively to fertilizing with fertilizers, making humus (fresh manure should not be used). The faded stems of all carnations are cut 10-15 cm from the surface of the earth. Then make a complex mineral fertilizer, watered, loosen the soil. After about a month, new shoots grow, and in the fall, in some species, secondary flowering begins. Even under ideal conditions, the lifespan of perennial species is only 4-6 years. In adverse conditions, they “stretch” for only 2-3 years.
Seed and vegetatively. For vegetative propagation, two methods are possible - cuttings and layering. Recently, repairing greenhouse cloves have been propagated almost exclusively by tissue culture, which makes it possible to obtain a uniform planting material free of viruses.
Vegetative propagation is the only way to get pure species plants (as mentioned earlier, cloves easily give hybrids). Carnations need to be propagated regularly and quite often, because many species belong to infants, that is, they live only 3-4 years, and indeed perennial species lose their decorativeness with age, as their bushes become thinner, sprawl and "bald" at the base. Oddly enough, at first glance, only very few species breed by dividing the bush. Most cloves have a powerful main root, from which the side shoots diverge. Sometimes some of them take root on their own, thus giving new plants. But the bulk of carnations, including varietal, needs special vegetative propagation.
Cuttings reproduce all cloves without exception, but for annual species it does not make sense. For cuttings using calcined sand or perlite. It is better to cut them in late May - early June, when the vegetative shoots are already well different from peduncles. For rooting, vegetative shoots 3–9 cm long are considered the best, depending on the type of clove, but with no less than 3-4 pairs of leaves. You can take longer cuttings. The slice is done immediately below the node. Lower leaves from the first 2 nodes need to be removed. On the underside of the shoot, along the entire length of the lower internode, a very sharp knife or scalpel is used to make a direct incision to a depth of 1/3 of the thickness of the stem. Incised cuttings are placed in a substrate and provide them with sufficient air humidity, covering with a film or even a jar. Cuttings of a large amount of material can be carried out in a cold greenhouse. You can use a fogging plant, but without heating the soil. Roots form in 2-3 weeks.
Reproduction by layering is possible in carnations with long vegetative shoots. To do this, an incision is made at the internodes in the direction from the bottom to the top to a depth of 1/3 of the thickness of the stem. Then this part of the shoot is pinned to the ground, covered with sand and regularly moisten the soil. After root formation (growths will appear from the internodes located above), the new plant is separated from the mother liquor and transplanted.
By dividing the bush, very few species multiply, forming sods of easily rooted shoots, for example, cloves bearded or Turkish, clove grass. It is better to divide the bush in early spring, then new plants often bloom in the first season.
Seeds often propagate species grown as annuals and biennials. Often they are sold as variety types, that is, it is known in advance that plants grown from seeds can be heterogeneous in color.
Seeds of perennial and biennial carnations are sown in April - May in pots with sandy soil. The optimum temperature for the germination of most cloves is 16–20 ºС. Seedlings are weak, therefore, pots are required so as not to lose seedlings. As soon as 3-4 pairs of leaves appear at the seedlings, they are carefully transplanted into new pots or to the school where the plants remain until planting in a permanent place next spring. It is not recommended to sow cloves immediately to a permanent place due to the fact that they grow quite slowly, and either they will be lost or clogged with weeds during rare crops, or some of them will die due to thickening of the crops. If necessary, perennial cloves can be sown in open ground in two periods - in early spring or before winter. In spring sowing, most species emerge for more than two weeks, with winter sowing - 1-2 weeks after snow melt. In the first year, perennials form rosettes, winter in this form and bloom the next year.
Annual cloves of the Shabo group, Chinese cloves that are grown as annuals, are sown in boxes in January-February at a temperature of 12-15 ° C in a mixture consisting of sheet, sod-clay soil and sand in a ratio of 1: 2: 1. The pick is made when the first true leaves appear in the same mixture with the addition of humus. Plants contain at a temperature of 8-12 "C in the brightest places, or additionally lighten up. In April, plants are taken out in greenhouses, planted in the ground in May.
Diseases and Pests
Virus diseases are widespread, especially in the south.
Signs of the disease: plants lag behind in growth, bear fruit poorly, their individual parts are deformed, mosaic coloring of leaves is observed. The infectious beginning is stored in plants and transmitted during cuttings, as well as sucking insects (cicadas, aphids, bugs).
Control measures: Growing cloves from seeds; selection of cuttings from healthy plants; removal and destruction of diseased plants.
Mushroom disease, which occurs more often on Dutch cloves. Signs of the disease are expressed in the fact that on leaves, stems, flower buds and buds, small rounded spots of grayish-brown color sometimes appear with a reddish rim. Later, the spots brighten in the center and are surrounded by chlorotic tissue. If the spots merge, they take on the edges of the leaves in the form of semicircles. With a strong development of the disease, the leaves turn yellow, dry, the stems in the spots are easily broken off, the flowers are ugly or do not develop at all. The fungus is stored on plant debris.
Control measures: Destruction of plant debris, cultivation of cloves in one place for no more than two years, avoid thickened plantings, repeated spraying of cloves with Bordeaux liquid or copper chloroxide according to the norms specified in the list of chemicals, plant nutrition with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
Due to cross-pollination, different varieties must be kept isolated from each other.
We look forward to your advice on this beloved plant!