We lay a pear garden, some features of planting
The survival rate, further growth, the timing of entry into fruiting, productivity and durability of a tree depend on the proper planting of plants.
It is best to plant a pear in the fall, although spring planting is acceptable. Planting should be done after the leaves have fallen, and it is necessary to finish them before the onset of low temperatures.
With spring planting, the best time is the third decade of April. Planting pits are prepared from autumn or spring, 7-10 days before planting.
Planting schemes for a pear on a tall rootstock 4 × 6 m. Plant trees in pits, less often in trenches. Active pear roots on tall rootstocks are located at a depth of 60-80 cm.
Digging a hole, the soil of the upper layer, approximately to the depth of the shovel, is folded to one side, and the denser and less fertile of the lower layers to the other. The soil at the bottom of a dug hole is well loosened and a strong stake of such length is driven into the center so that the upper part reaches the first branch of the seedling crown.
On the eve of planting, the soil removed from the pit must be enriched with fertilizers and again put into the pit. First of all, organic fertilizers are added to the soil - rotted manure, peat, compost. These fertilizers not only contain many nutrients necessary for the plant, but also improve the structure of the soil: heavy clay makes it more permeable to air, and sandy soil as a result retains moisture better. In addition to organic fertilizers, phosphorus-potash, mineral fertilizers and, if the soil is acidic, lime is added to the soil intended for refueling the pit. All this is thoroughly mixed.
Before landing, the pit should be filled to the brim. Soil is poured into the center of it to form a mound. A seedling is placed on this mound on the north side of the stake. The crucial moment at this time is determining the depth of landing. The tree should be planted so that after planting its root neck coincides with the surface of the soil. For this, usually the root neck of a newly planted tree should be 4-5 cm above the soil level. In order not to be mistaken, before landing on the edge of the pit they put a board or just a shovel stalk and mark it at the stake level. Sedimentation of the soil depends on its mechanical composition, on the density of the pit packing, on the amount of organic fertilizer that settles heavily during decomposition.
The root neck is the place where the stem goes to the root. The transitional color from the brown-brown color of the stem to the lighter color of the root is clearly visible here. But often gardeners confuse the root neck with the site of vaccination, which can be much higher on the stem.
Too small planting leads to exposure of the roots after the subsidence of the soil and their drying. With deep planting, especially on clay soils, trees grow poorly and can die.
High planting can be corrected by adding soil. It is more difficult with a deep landing, although this trouble is fixable. To do this, in the fall or in the spring, on one side, at a distance of 30-50 cm from the trunk, the roots are chopped off. From the same side, the tree is gradually raised using levers, and the resulting void under the roots is filled with soil. However, such an operation is successful only in young trees.
It is more convenient to plant a tree together. With one left hand puts the seedling on the knoll, setting it at the desired height, and with the right hand spreads the roots in different directions. Another fills the roots with loose earth.
The most important requirement when planting is to fill all the spaces between the roots with the ground and make sure that it fits snugly against the roots. The tree is slightly shaken so that the earth wakes up better between the roots. The ground thrown to the roots is crushed with a foot. The plant should be planted so firmly that without significant effort it could not be pulled out.
Around the stem at the border of the pit, a roller of earth is poured, thus forming a hole for irrigation. Watered immediately after planting at the rate of two or three buckets per plant. Watering is necessary not only to moisten the soil, but also for its precipitation and better fit to the roots. After watering, the trunk circle is mulched. A tree is tied to a stake. The garter is made in the form of a figure eight, weakly, without pulling the stem close to the stake.
- For planting, two-seedling seedlings are preferable. In biennial seedlings, the crown usually consists of a direct leading shoot and three to four well-developed healthy branches laid on it, evenly distributed and directed in different directions.
- If the seedlings are slightly dried, before planting, their roots should be lowered into the water for a day, and if the aboveground part is dried, the seedlings are completely immersed in water for one to two days.
- It is also advisable to soak the roots of unsafe, healthy seedlings before planting in water or in an aqueous solution of earth and mullein - in the so-called talker - for one day.
Before planting, leaves are removed from the plant. The fact is that the leaves continue to evaporate moisture, and the root system of the seedling does not work at this time.
- When transplanting large seedlings with leaves, it is important to reduce the evaporation of shortened branches. To do this, put a transparent bag on each branch and tie it on top, otherwise the branches will overheat in the sun. This technique increases the survival rate of seedlings.
- You should not put fresh, not overripe manure at the bottom of the pit, which does not decompose for a long time and can cause seedling root disease.
- When buying fertilizer for pears, pay attention to the label, which lists the trace elements contained in it, while the main value is cobalt, molybdenum and boron.
- Isaeva Irina Sergeevna - Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, hereditary gardener, an authoritative scientist. Leading garden headings in the most popular central and regional newspapers and magazines. A practicing gardener who maintains close ties with amateur gardeners across the country. Member of the Academic Council of the Moscow Institute of Horticulture (VSTISiP), member of the editorial board of the journal Garden and Vegetable Garden.