How to grow a good harvest of garlic?
Without a bed of garlic it is difficult to imagine a country garden. Garlic is deservedly called a natural antibiotic, an antifungal agent, and a folk doctor. And garlic care does not take away much energy and golden summer time from gardeners.
Garlic belongs to the group of perennials of the amaryllis family. The scientific type name for garlic is “Onion sowing”, “Sowing garlic” (Allium sativum), much less often - “onion-garlic”. In everyday life, this vegetable crop is called simply garlic.
The cultivation of garlic began more than 5000 years ago, according to various links, in Egypt, where the culture was first used for treatment. Garlic was included in the daily diet of the workers who built the Egyptian pyramids. For Greek athletes, participants in the early Olympic Games, garlic served as a kind of steroid, and for Greek soldiers as a stimulant of courage. Pasteur's early writings identified 23 types of bacteria, including staphylococci, salmonella, whose ruthless killer was garlic.
Mankind, for the first time having learned the secret of healing many diseases with garlic preparations, no longer parted with this culture.
The biological characteristics of garlic
The root system of garlic is fibrous, but individual roots can reach a meter deep. The high stem is false, formed by the leaf sheaths of the leaf blades. As the plant develops, the lower part of the leaf thickens and forms into a fleshy scale. Some external scales, drying out, turn into integumentary scales of the bulb. Due to the very short internodes, the true stalk of garlic will be flattened to a thin bottom. On it are fleshy scales, teeth, closed on top with integumentary scales. Inside the tooth there is a kidney with one or two growth points and embryonic leaves. After resting, the teeth grow into a new plant. Chives are used as food and as a material for vegetative propagation.
The inflorescence of garlic is a simple umbrella, located on a flower-bearing shoot from 0.5 to 1.5 m tall, which is called the arrow. In the inflorescence, sterile flowers and air bulbs (bulbs) develop, the number of which, depending on the variety, is from 10 to 500 pieces. The entire inflorescence of garlic is covered with a dense cover before flowering. Inflorescences of garlic form seeds only with strong ultraviolet radiation. Under normal conditions, air bulbs form. Ripe garlic bulbs crumble and sprout with single-tooth bulbs (single-tooth). Sowing a single tooth gives the usual multi-tooth garlic bulb. When propagated by bulbs, the culture is considered two-year-old, that is, in the first year they receive single-tooth, and their sowing the next year forms the usual multi-tooth garlic bulb.
Types of aerial mass of garlic
Garlic forms two types of aboveground mass.
- Flower-bearing or darting. They form an shoot with an inflorescence (arrow).
- Non-flowering or non-shooting. This type during vegetation forms only leaf mass.
Shooting garlic does not die. Direct peduncle (arrow) and leaves turn yellow at the end of the growing season. The arrow reveals a common cover of inflorescences and bulbs crumble to the ground.
In non-firing garlic, the leaves lose turgor as they ripen, turn yellow, lie down on the soil and dry out.
Types of garlic
Garlic is divided into 2 species, which differ in planting time and the size of the bulb formed. In autumn, planted cloves of winter garlic. In spring - spring garlic cloves. Winter garlic has both forms: shooter and non-shooting, and spring garlic only non-shooting.
In the country, it is better to grow both forms. Winter forms the crop earlier, the heads are larger, the yield is higher. But it is characterized by low keeping quality. By January-February, the cloves of winter garlic dry out and need additional measures to preserve the seed. It is also better to grow Shoots of winter garlic.
Differences between winter and spring garlic
Winter garlic forms cloves around the stem, located in the center of the bulb. When separating the teeth, the stem remains naked.
Spring garlic does not have such a stem. The teeth are more curved due to the tight fit to each other in the garlic bulb. The largest cloves are located in the outer rows, to the middle are smaller.
For eating, both types of garlic are absolutely identical. According to biological characteristics, they differ in terms of planting. Spring forms a crop only during spring planting. Winter garlic is the largest and most healthy crop, ripening by July, forms during autumn planting. When planting cloves in the spring, he, even if he forms a crop, is not of high quality and not stale.
Technology for growing winter garlic
Planting Winter Garlic
Winter garlic is planted in the fall. In the south, with warm, long autumn, landing can be postponed to the end of October, and even November-December. In 2016, I sowed winter garlic in the first decade of December (more precisely, on December 3). The teeth are rooted, the tops of future leaves are slightly green. Such a development is an excellent transition to winter recreation. If sown in the early stages, when warm weather often returns to +10 .. + 12 ° С in the south, the garlic manages to form leaves up to 5-6 cm, which freeze with frost and spring plants are damaged, which subsequently leads to grinding heads .
Frequent temperature fluctuations in the autumn period required a review of the planting dates of winter garlic cloves in the middle zone of the Russian Federation and CIS countries. In the middle regions, the period from the second half of September to mid-October was considered the optimal period. Currently, the optimal period for fall planting has moved to mid-October. It is better to start landing when the air temperature at night approaches +8 - + 10 ° С. Garlic will have time to form a developed root system without green aboveground shoots. Thus, a very important point is to most clearly determine the time of planting cloves and sowing bulbs for reproduction. If the cloves and bulbs form leaves in the fall, they can die in the spring during the return frosts or the whole vegetation period is constantly sick.
The next condition for a good harvest is the light intensity. If garlic beds are obscured by taller crops, the heads will be shredded. Large heads do not form when growing garlic in partial shade.
So that garlic does not overload with infectious diseases, the culture is returned to its previous place of cultivation in 4-5 years. An equally important condition is previous cultures. The best predecessors are cultures of the nightshade family (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant), pumpkin (pumpkin, cucumbers, zucchini), cruciferous (cabbage, salads).
Winter garlic is a good neighbor for a number of fruit bushes: blackcurrant, raspberry, gooseberry, strawberry and wild strawberry. It has a good effect on the growth and development of cucumbers and potatoes. It protects them, like roses, gladioli, tulips from slugs, drills, caterpillars. Unbearable smell of garlic for moles. Garlic, planted next to a rose, reduces the possibility of damage to the culture of black spotting.
The level of the infectious background is very important for garlic. The higher it is, the less hope for the formation of healthy garlic heads. Therefore, always before planting garlic, it is necessary to carry out disinfecting measures.
The main of them can be called sowing of phacelia siderat. Phacelia is a wonderful green fertilizer. Heals the soil from almost all types of fungal diseases (late blight, root rot), destroys pests (wireworm, nematode, locust). Phacelia successfully deoxidizes the soil. Suppresses the growth of weeds (woodlice, etc.).
Good removal of wireworm from the site is the introduction of ammonium forms of mineral fertilizers, including ammonia water, ammonium sulfate, potassium sulfate.
If the garlic bed occupies a small area, you can spill the area with a solution of potassium permanganate.
Preparing the soil for planting garlic
Garlic prefers light soils with neutral acidity. If the soil is acidified, make 1 cup of lime or dolomite flour per 1 square. m. Garlic does not tolerate flooding and fresh organic matter. When fresh organics are added directly to the planting of garlic, there is a severe defeat of fungal diseases, the quality of garlic bulbs decreases. Therefore, if necessary, loosen heavy soil, humus and manure is best done under the previous culture, and under garlic - horse peat, sand, sawdust of deciduous trees (conifers acidify the soil).
For autumn digging (25-30 cm) use complex mineral fertilizer - 35-50 g / m² or a mixture of a glass of ash and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers - 30 and 20 g / m², respectively. The soil is carefully leveled. They begin planting in 1-2 weeks so that the soil inflated by digging settles. Literally 1-2 days before planting, 15 g / m² of ammonium nitrate is added or grooves are shed with a root solution. This procedure is especially desirable when delayed with sowing in order to accelerate the formation of the root system.
Preparing planting material
Planting material can be purchased at specialized retail outlets, but it is better to use a sample of crops grown in the current year. For planting, choose the largest heads and, on the day of planting, cut them into separate single-sized teeth. If the teeth are prepared in advance, then the bottom of the tooth dries up and, accordingly, the germination energy decreases. During prolonged storage of split teeth, they may not sprout.
The teeth are disinfected in a solution of potassium permanganate (30-40 minutes) and planted. Tooth disinfection can be carried out in a 1% solution of copper sulfate. The teeth are kept in solution for no more than 1 minute. Some experienced gardeners recommend rinsing teeth first in 1-2 minutes in a salt solution (40-50 g / 5 l of water). Then immediately lower the solution of copper sulfate in a 1% solution for 1 minute and, without rinsing, start planting the planting material.
If these materials are not available, disinfection of planting material can be carried out with an alkaline solution. 400 g of ash are poured into 2 liters of water, boiled for 0.5 hours, cooled. The cold solution is filtered and the teeth are held in the prepared concentrate for 1.5-2.0 hours. Washed with boiled cold water and planted.
Planting winter garlic
The optimal planting pattern of garlic is ordinary or double-row (two-line). The width between the stitches is 10-12 cm, between the rows 25 cm or the width of the chopper blade. The distance in the row is 8-10 cm or the length of a standard matchbox. When planting is thickened, the cloves and bulbs become smaller. The depth of embedment is 2 tooth heights or not less than 5-7 cm. For shallow planting, rapid heating of the upper soil layers in spring will lead to grinding of heads and teeth. If the soil is dry, pre-water the bottom of the furrow from the watering can. Close and level the soil. Despite the sufficient frost resistance of winter garlic (-18 ..- 25 ° С), plantings of any small mulch must be mulched. From the raven you can cover the bed with spruce branches or dry branches.
In the spring after the snow melts, the planting of garlic must be flaked. Loosening will remove the soil crust, remove the rudiments of weeds, and increase the access of oxygen to the roots of plants. The presence of soil crust inhibits the development of garlic bulbs. They are stunted and form shredded heads.
Active increase in the aerial mass of garlic takes place in May, June and the first half of July. Watering is carried out 3 times a month in normal weather. In hot summers, watering is increased to 5-6 times per month. If the summer is wet, do not water the garlic. Plants in the period of active growth need high humidity, but the coincidence of rains and heavy watering leads to fungal and bacterial diseases, root rot, leaf rust. To reduce the amount of watering and keep the soil moist for a longer time, it is necessary to loosen and mulch the soil after each watering. In hot summers, when the soil dries quickly, without mulching large heads of garlic can not be obtained.
Approximately from the first decade of July, when the pre-harvest ripening of the heads of garlic begins, they switch to maintaining soil moisture or cancel irrigation. Do not allow drying, so that dry soil does not take moisture from ripening teeth.
Garlic top dressing
To make feeding more effective, they are combined with watering. Garlic heads are able to accumulate nitrogen, therefore, additional provision of the culture with nutrients must be treated carefully. During the growing season, garlic is fed 2-3 times, no more.
The first top dressing of winter garlic is carried out on moist soil in the phase of 3-4 leaves with a urea solution (20-25 g / 10 l of water) with a flow rate of 3 l of solution per 1 sq. m square.
The second top dressing of garlic is carried out after 2 weeks with nitrofos, nitroammophos or other fertilizer at the rate of 2 tablespoons per 1 m². Top dressing can be applied in dry form or in solution (2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water, per 2 m²).
The third top dressing on fertile soils can be omitted. On sandy and light soils, they are fed in the phase of formation and growth of the heads (second decade of June) with superphosphate - 30-40 g / m².
If it is noticed that the plants slowly build up the above-ground mass, it is possible to carry out additional foliar feeding with infusion of ash or bird droppings, water-soluble fertilizers with a set of trace elements.
Solutions of the following concentration are prepared:
- 1 glass of ash or bird droppings is diluted in 10 liters of water, plants are filtered and sprayed,
- You can use a spoon of crystallin with a microelement set (buy in the store) for 8-10 liters of water.
Foliar top dressing of garlic can be used in any combination, but low concentration, as it complements, but does not replace, the main top dressing. If you overfeed the plants, the taste and quality of the bulbs noticeably deteriorate.
Garlic is degenerate. From years of selection over time, it is no longer possible to get large heads. Therefore, the material must be updated after 3-4 years. To do this, ripened inflorescences are harvested, large bulbs are selected and sown in approximately September - early October. The next year they receive single teeth, which, when sown in autumn, form healthy, full-sized, large heads of winter shoot garlic.
See also our material: We grow garlic from bulbs.
Large heads are formed by winter garlic, if the arrows are removed in a timely manner as they appear. Arrows are removed at 10 cm height. They break off or cut off, leaving a 2-3 cm column.
Protecting Garlic from Diseases and Pests
Like all vegetables, winter garlic is susceptible to infection by fungal, microbial and viral diseases. Chemical preparations for protection against diseases and pests on garlic are not recommended. The most practical and without threatening the health of the owners of the cottage, children, animals is better to use biofungicides. They can process plants from the first days of their lives until harvest, which will allow you to get healthy products.
If with the timely fulfillment of all agricultural technical requirements, winter garlic has changed color, spots, dots, arrows have appeared on the leaves, growth has stopped, then the plant is infected. The most common diseases are leaf rust, root rot, fusarium, powdery mildew, white root rot, etc.It is necessary to immediately begin to treat plants and soil with alirin, gamair, phytosporin, glyocladin, planriz. The preparation of working solutions and their application is given in the recommendations, it is impossible to deviate from their requirements. Independent increase in concentration, spraying at low temperatures will not have the expected positive effect on plants.
Of the pests, the most harmful ones are: onion fly, whose larvae eat the flesh of the teeth, stem nematode, onion beetles, thrips, ticks, secretive hunters and others.
Key control methods include mandatory dressing of planting material and treatment of plants and soil with bioinsecticides. Due to the natural biological basis, bioinsecticides do not adversely affect human health and are not addictive in pests.
These include the most commonly used actofit, avertin-N, mycoafidine, lepidocide, bitoxybacillin, nemabact, bicol, pecilomycin (from nematodes) and others.
Effective, as a preventative measure, planting marigold and marigolds along the edge of the beds and between the wide rows of garlic. The nematode larvae, crawling on the smell of flower crops, use the juice of their roots for nutrition, which is toxic for nematodes and leads to the death of pests.
Cleaning begins in late July - early August. Dug up plants are dried in the shade for 3-5 days. Then cut off the aerial part, leaving 5-6 cm of the column. It should be noted that almost all varieties of winter garlic differ in large onions. So, the Komsomolets variety forms heads weighing up to 80-110 g, Sofievsky - 90-110 g, Otradnensky - up to 100 g.
Varieties of winter garlic for growing in the country
Early ripe varieties: Bashkir (non-shooting), Broadleaf -220 (non-shooting).
- Alcor - for the conditions of Western Siberia,
- Podmoskovny (non-shooting) - for the Moscow region and the areas close to them,
- Lyubasha - for Ukraine and the middle regions of Russia,
- Nazus is intended for the Urals and surrounding regions,
- Komsomolets - for the northern regions.
From other mid-season varieties of garlic, it can be recommended for cultivation in the middle zone and cold regions: Reliable, German, Dubkovsky, Antonik, Gribovsky anniversary, Gribovsky-60, Novosibirsk (non-shooting), Zubrenok, Losevsky, Sofievsky, Skif, Danilovsky and others. All varieties can grow in the southern regions, forming high-quality crops.
How to grow spring garlic
Unlike winter, spring garlic is sown in spring, when the soil warms up in the upper 15 cm layer to + 5 ... + 8 ° С. Spring garlic is distinguished by the formation of small heads. To get larger heads, they are sown as early as possible. The culture is quite frost-resistant and develops better at low temperatures. Therefore, if it is not possible to measure the temperature of the soil, then usually gardeners, focusing on the period from the snowfall, as well as depending on the region and climate, begin to sow in early to mid-April.
Sprouts of spring garlic are not afraid of spring return frosts and appear at an air temperature of + 3 ... + 4 ° С.
The soil for spring garlic is prepared in the fall, so as not to bother in the spring in the cold semi-frozen ground.
Agrotechnical requirements for environmental conditions, soil preparation and planting material do not differ from winter garlic.
Temperature garlic requirements for spring garlic
The requirements of spring garlic to the temperature regime change during the growing season. You can adjust it by the depth of the teeth. So that the temperature is optimal in the zone of development of the root system (+ 5 ... + 10 ° С), the teeth are planted to a depth of 5-6 cm and the sowing is mulched so that the soil in this layer warms up more slowly. At a low soil temperature, the teeth are more actively moving in growth, the development of the root system is faster. A month later (from the phase of laying the garlic bulbs), the best air temperature is + 15 ... + 20 ° С, and later, when the bulbs ripen, + 20 ... + 25 ° С.
You can control the temperature of the air and soil (of course, relatively) using mulching and light misting. In cold weather, mulch of a dark color (horse peat) is used, in hot weather - light (sawdust, shavings). Can be mulched with mowed, dried grass. The loose layer passes air well and prevents soil heating. A layer of mulch is recommended not lower than 4-5 cm. With this technique, you can reduce the temperature on the soil from 1 to 3 ° C and even more.
Spring garlic dressing
Spring garlic is fed 2 times during the growing season. You can not (like winter) overfeed the culture. When overfeeding in the teeth, the nitrite form of nitrogen compounds accumulates (toxic to humans), the quality of the teeth decreases sharply. To feed spring garlic, if the soil during the main preparation is well seasoned with fertilizers, you can use nitrofoska or tincture of 1 cup of fresh mullein or bird droppings with 2 cups of ash in 10-12 liters of water. Stir the solution well, strain and add to the aisles under watering, followed by mulching.
Spring Garlic Care
Caring for spring garlic (cultivation, watering, protection from diseases and pests) is no different from winter garlic.
By August, the leaves turn yellow, lie down, the culture is ready for harvest. They dig up the garlic, brush it off the ground and, after drying, weave it into braids. In this form, garlic is stored in a cool, dry place. The shelf life of garlic bulbs resistant to drying is up to 1.5-2.0 years. The vast majority of varieties stored for up to 10 months.
Varieties of spring garlic for growing in the country:
- The Aleisky variety is mid-season, zoned for conditions in Western Siberia.
- The Sochi-56 variety is early ripe, resistant to weather extremes in the southern regions and diseases. It is successfully grown in the middle climatic zone.
- Variety Permyak mid-season, designed for the northern regions.
- Variety Degtyarsky mid-season for the northern regions.
How do you grow your garlic? Share your proven secrets and tips in the comments!