Spring blackcurrant care
The time has come for spring work in the garden, the berry, in the garden. What care is needed for this berry in the spring? It must be said that spring processing of berry plants is more important than autumn. The sequence of work can be changed if there is still snow and some work cannot be completed. For example, to carry out spring cleaning of blackcurrant from garbage accumulated during the autumn-winter period. Do not carry out forming pruning if it was done in the fall. But let's try to consider all the work in order.
Spring care for blackcurrant includes such urgent work as:
- cleaning blackcurrant bushes
- bushes pruning
- pruning bushes
- treatment against pests and diseases
- blackcurrant top dressing
- soil loosening and mulching
Cleaning blackcurrant bushes
The main cleaning of blackcurrant bushes from old branches, fallen leaves, weeds is carried out in autumn. However, garbage accumulates during the autumn-winter period and must be removed. Carefully we scrub blackcurrant from the bush and, between the branches in the bush, the old overwintered foliage and be sure to burn. In it, without a doubt, part of the pests wintering, retiring late.
Sanitary blackcurrant pruning
Carefully inspect the bush of black currant. We cut out all broken, growing inward, diseased and dry branches.
We inspect the lower branches and cut off lying on the ground. They were crushed by the snow. We cut off at the last or penultimate living kidney, looking up. We pile the branches.
We examine the old branches of blackcurrant, whose effective fruiting has ended. These are 6-7 year old branches. They are covered with old coarse bark, practically do not have young lateral shoots and buds. Such branches will not form a crop, but some of the nutrients from the young will be taken away. We cut them near the ground and also send them to a heap.
We turn to the living fertile shoots of blackcurrant. We inspect each from the bottom to the tip of the branch. If there are frozen parts, cut to a living kidney.
If the blackcurrant bush looks depleted, the young fruiting shoots are thin, cut them all by 8-10 cm. This technique will save the bush's forces for the formation of the crop.
Once again, inspect the flowering shoots. On some branches, the buds are swollen, round. There the mite settled down for the winter. If the entire branch is affected, we cut it without regret. Otherwise, we may be left without a crop. Affected branches of blackcurrant must be burned.
If there are 1-2 swollen buds on the flowering shoot of blackcurrant, we pluck them and put them in a bag or pocket. Then we burn them, like all cut branches.
Blackcurrant normal pruning
After all preparatory pruning, they begin annual pruning of blackcurrant bushes to load the bush.
The load of blackcurrant bush is carried out in parallel with sanitary pruning. In young 2-3-year-old bushes, 3-4 young well-developed shoots are left, the rest are cut into a ring near the ground. The stems are cut so that an impromptu circle or quadrangle is formed with approximately equal distances from each other. There is no need to leave young growth inside this circle / square. The wider the base, the brighter the blackcurrant bush and the more the berries are set.
Every year, the bush of black currant is replenished with 3-4 basal annual shoots. By the age of five, the bush will have 8-12 strong fruitful shoots. There may be more if the base of the bush has a large diameter. The distance between the shoots of black currant is 8-12-15 cm. The second-order shoots practically do not touch. They can be shortened if the growth of the previous year is equal to or exceeds 40-45 cm.
Remember! The width of the base of the blackcurrant bush depends on the proper planting. The seedling is planted obliquely, not vertically. With an inclined planting, the bush develops additional roots and forms a larger number of shoots from sleeping buds.
The most active period of blackcurrant crop formation is 5-7 years, then the fruiting of aging and old branches decreases. These branches with the March load of the bush, cut off in the first place. Old 8-9 year old bushes are uprooted and replaced by young ones, gradually moving the berry to a new location. You can replace blackcurrant uprooting with rejuvenation, which is more practical in the spring before the kidneys spill (March). When rejuvenating, all shoots are cut into a ring and form a bush from new young ones.
Treatment against pests and diseases
Immediately after pruning, we start processing blackcurrant bushes from pests and diseases.
Experienced gardeners spend several types of treatments on sleeping bushes:
- fire treatment;
- boiling water treatment;
- processing with solutions of toxic chemicals;
- biological treatment.
Blackcurrant processing by fire
A large number of experienced gardeners began to use early blackcurrant treatments (in early March while the bushes were sleeping) to deal with ticks and aphids by blowtorch or gas burner fire.
After pruning, the bush of black currant is quite sparse. We direct the fire of the burner to the branches of the bush at a distance of 8-10 cm and lead along the branches from top to bottom 2-3 times. As if stroking the fire. Do not bring fire close and do not keep near branches, they do not need to be fried. Only burn superficially. In this case, aphid eggs and a large number of ticks wintering in buds inflated from their number die.
Remember! Only black, red, white, and strawberries / strawberries can be processed with fire. The remaining types of berries (raspberries, gooseberries and others) are not allowed.
If there is still snow, you can dig it away from the roots of blackcurrant, and after a few days return it to its place.
Afraid of handling fire, go to one of the following types, in your opinion less dangerous.
Like fire processing, it is carried out in early spring, while the blackcurrant bush is at rest.
About 1-1.2 buckets of hot water are consumed on a large bush of blackcurrant. Water is filled with boiling water with a sprayer, and from a height of 15-20 cm above the bush, we wash it with boiling water. As long as the water reaches the bush, the temperature will drop to + 60 ... + 70 ° C and will not damage the plant. Bathing reduces the number of pests, fungal diseases, but does not completely destroy them. Therefore, in the phase of swelling of the kidneys we will return once again to the treatment of plants from pests and diseases.
Blackcurrant treatment with pesticides
At the end of March – the first half of April, blackcurrant bushes are treated with a 1-2% solution of copper sulfate or a 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid. You can use a solution of copper oxychloride, as recommended. Processing with these drugs partially destroys wintering ticks, aphids, as well as fungal infections.
At the beginning of the formation of blackcurrant buds, experts recommend treating the bushes with dispersed sulfur or a suspension of colloidal sulfur. During this period, spraying with Sulfaride, Kinmix and others approved for use is still possible. Perhaps the use of drugs "Actara", "Inta-Vir" and others.
But in a private garden, the use of chemicals is undesirable, and in families with small children is prohibited. Organic products can be obtained using biological products, infusions and decoctions of insecticidal plants.
Blackcurrant treatment with biological products
Biological products that can be used to treat currants throughout the warm season right up to the harvest will help rid currants from ticks, aphids, mumps, fungal infections of various pathologies and other pests and diseases.
The maximum effect of biological products is manifested at positive temperatures from +15 .. + 18 ° C.
Please note! It is necessary to breed and use biological products in strict accordance with the recommendations, then their effectiveness will be maximum.
Biological products are harmless to humans, animals and birds. Begin to act in a few hours. Their action lasts at least 2-3 weeks. Re-treatment before the end of the drug is carried out only after rains.
To protect plants from pests, Nemacabact, Lepidocide, Bitoxibacillin, Fitoverm and others are used.
For protection against diseases - “Pentofag”, “Trichodermin”, “Fitosporin-B”, “Alirin-B”, “Gamair” and others.
Biological products mix well in tank mixtures, which reduces the number of treatments and the load on the bushes during treatments.
Decoctions and infusions of insecticidal plants
Currently, there are tips and recommendations from gardeners and gardeners on the use of insecticidal plants to protect fruit crops from pests:
- infusion of garlic;
- infusion of celandine, marigolds (tagetes), dandelion, yarrow;
- fresh potato tops;
- decoction of tobacco, yarrow, etc.
Along with harmless insecticidal plants, recommendations abound with the use of highly toxic plants, which will not only destroy a pitiful part of the pests, but also serve as poison when unwashed berries are used in food. Be careful!
Rules for fertilizing when applying any type of fertilizer:
- the diameter of the fertilizer is equal to or slightly larger than the crown of the bush;
- fertilizers are evenly applied on all sides, scattering on the soil surface for irrigation or small incorporation into the soil by 5-8 cm;
- in early spring, you can feed blackcurrant bushes with organic or complete fertilizer by the deep introduction method. Depending on the age and size of the bush, at a distance of 50-60 cm, a ditch 30 cm deep and 7-10 cm wide is dug around the perimeter. A solution of organic or mineral fertilizers is poured into it and covered with soil after absorption;
- fertilizer solution can be applied to the surface of loosened soil directly under the bush of black currant. In this case, after top dressing, the soil is watered with clean water and mulched.
Phases of blackcurrant top dressing
In the spring, 2 feeding is carried out:
- in the phase of the beginning of flowering. Late varieties when forming 1-2 cm of shoots of the current year;
- the beginning of the mass setting of berries.
The first spring top dressing of black currant
Blackcurrants are fed at the age of three (first fruiting).
If in autumn fertilizers were not applied under blackcurrant, then the first spring top dressing is performed:
- organic fertilizer solution (manure, bird droppings);
- full mineral fertilizer;
- a mixture of organic and mineral fertilizers.
To feed blackcurrant with manure, use a solution in a concentration of 1 part mullein per 10 parts of water and add 20-25 g of urea or ammonium nitrate.
If bird droppings are used instead of manure, then 1 part of the droppings is dissolved in 12-15 liters of water with the addition of urea.
In the absence of organic matter, nitroammophoska can be added at the rate of 30-40 g / bush, followed by watering and mulching.
If the blackcurrant bushes are large with a high level of fruiting, then in the spring it is better to add an organic-mineral mixture of manure or bird droppings and phosphorus-potassium fertilizer. 1 part of manure is diluted in 10 liters of water, 20-25 g of superphosphate and 10-15 g of potassium sulfate are added. The mixture is thoroughly stirred and introduced into the furrows located along the edge of the currant bush. After applying and closing fertilizers, you can water the bushes with an average norm of water (do not wash out the fertilizers).
If in the autumn the soil under blackcurrant was seasoned with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, in the spring only nitrogen fertilizers in the form of urea or ammonium nitrate at a dose of 50-60 g / sq are applied to the first top dressing. m square. Bushes older than 4 years receive ½ of the specified rate.
The second spring feeding blackcurrant
The second spring feeding of blackcurrant over a period of time occurs after 14 days or in the phase of mass setting of berries. Currants in this period need, in addition to basic fertilizers, trace elements. Their plant can get in the form of top dressing:
- wood ash in 0.5-1.0 cups under a bush with subsequent shallow incorporation of loosening and irrigation with mulching;
- you can make 1-3 kg of humus under each bush mixed with potassium sulfate. Processing after feeding, as with ash;
- for fertilizing, you can use mineral fertilizers containing trace elements - "Kemiru", "Berry" and others. They can be applied to the soil under a bush or foliar top dressing by spraying with a solution. In the soil make 50-60 g / sq. With foliar top dressing, 10 g of fertilizer is dissolved in 8-10 liters of water and sprayed;
- foliar top dressing can be carried out after the first root dressing after 7-8 days using boric acid, infusion of wood ash, Kemira and other trace elements, which are sold in specialized stores;
The second foliar feeding of black currant is carried out in early summer with the growth of berries. The dose and method of feeding are the same.
In early spring, currants, as a rule, are not watered separately. Watering is used when fertilizing.
The first time an independent watering of black currant is carried out under long-term dry weather in the phase of mass flowering. With a sufficient supply of winter moisture, the first watering of blackcurrant is carried out in the phase of ovary formation (approximately the end of May).
The second watering of blackcurrant is already summer. It is carried out in the phase of growth (filling) of berries.
Currants love sprinkling irrigation. They are best done before or after flowering. During flowering or in the absence of irrigation devices, hose irrigation can be carried out:
- on the furrows in the aisles;
- under the bush, where a roller was made to hold water;
- in a ditch made around the perimeter of the bush and in other ways.
It is important that the soil when watering blackcurrant be well wetted in a layer of 40-60 cm.
Soil cultivation and mulching
To keep moisture longer after absorbing water, the soil under the blackcurrant bush is loosened and mulched. As mulch can be used under the bushes:
- ripened compost;
- neutral peat;
- rotted sawdust or shavings, mowed grass or mowed green manure.
The use of mulch will not only retain moisture, but will also serve as an additional organic fertilizer, and will also improve the physical properties of the soil.
The berry must be kept clean. Timely destroy weeds and loosen the soil, which will increase air access to the roots of plants, improve the microclimate in the root-inhabited layer. Performing spring work will serve as a reserve for the formation of a high yield of blackcurrant with good quality berries.
Dear readers! The norms and combinations of fertilizers for root and foliar top dressing of blackcurrant given in the article, chemical and biological products for treating pests and diseases are not a dogma. Without a doubt, many gardeners and gardeners use their tried-and-tested methods for managing berry plants. Share your experiences with us in the comments.