Not a single onion
It's no secret that ground vegetables are tastier and healthier than greenhouse vegetables, which is why spring gifts from the garden are so welcome. And the first among them are perennial bows. Of course, we have paid attention to them before. But hardly anyone in the garden has any complete collection. Therefore, we decided to talk in detail about perennial bows.
The genus Allium (onion) includes half a million species, but only two hundred of them grow in Russia. Almost all of them have high nutritional, medicinal and decorative properties, but, unfortunately, they grow mainly garlic, onions, leeks and shallots. But a batun, shnitt, slime, fragrant, multi-tiered, oblique, wild garlic is rarely seen in gardeners.
Perennial onions are rich in essential amino acids, vitamins, perfectly affect metabolism and immunity, their essential oils stimulate appetite and improve digestion. And everyone knows about volatile substances volatile substances with strong bactericidal properties.
Perennial onions have other advantages: simple agricultural technology, winter and frost resistance (they can withstand temperatures up to minus 40 ° C), resistance to diseases, pests and a good harvest for 3-5 years, even with multiple cutting.
Unlike onions, perennial onions form a false bulb, which under favorable conditions continuously gives leaves. And since the dormant period is short, they are suitable for cultivation in sheltered soil or a room.
Under perennial bows, a plot is allocated outside the main crop rotation - it will be exploited for 5-6 years. Well, if the onion in the fall and spring will not flood the water. The roots of this plant are stringy and occur at a depth of 20-30 cm, so the soil should be very fertile, light in texture, neutral or slightly acidic (pH = 6-7), without rhizome and root shoot weeds. If horsetail or horse sorrel grow on the site, then liming is necessary first.
The soil is prepared in the same way as for onions: in the fall, manure, humus or compost (10 kg per sq. M) and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are applied for digging, and in the spring, nitrogen is added under the rake.
Perennial onions propagated by dividends or sow. Seeds are small, especially in chives, and germination is low. It is better to sow fresh, and if they lie down (germination below 80%), then the seeding rate should be increased. Before sowing, they must be disinfected.
Depending on the type of soil, the seeds are placed on a flat surface, ridges or ridges, the last two methods are useful in lowlands and on cold ground. Sown in open ground in April-May and must be mulched with peat or humus (0.5-1 kg per square meter). Seedlings and delenki planted in the spring and summer.
In the second and subsequent years, regular top dressing is necessary (in the early spring and after each leaf cut - 10 g per square meter of potash and nitrogen fertilizers and 15 g of phosphate fertilizers). In the first year, a plant is formed with one to three branches, and the next year there are as many flower arrows with spherical inflorescences.
In the end of April - the beginning of May, chives, batun and multi-tier grow earlier than others, later - slime and fragrant. Therefore, planting a set of perennial bows, you can create a green conveyor.
To get greenery in the winter, from the autumn 3-4-year-old planting material is selected and dug up. They are placed in boxes, sprinkled with earth or peat and stored at a temperature of 0 .. + 2 ° C until disembarkation.
Chives (cutter, speed) is valued for its decorative effect, high vitamin C content in early spring and good winter hardiness (it does not freeze even in the Far North). It has arched, hollow, awl-shaped, green with a wax coating, leaves up to 40 cm long. Plants grow rapidly and give a powerful bush for the fourth year. Flower arrows are straight, thin, slightly longer than the leaves. On them are small spherical inflorescences with flowers of various colors: from white to lilac-purple.
This onion has two varieties: Central Russian (strongly bushy, leaves grow to 25 cm quickly, but also coarsen quickly) and Siberian (the leaves are larger, up to 40 cm long, grow slower and later, but last up to two months). We have zoned everywhere Medonos and Nemal, and Bohemia, Crocus grow better in areas with mild winters.
Honey plant - medium early variety. On its plants, in spring, dark green peninsular leaves grow together. They can be collected for a long time, productivity 1.7-2.5 kg / sq.m.
Chemal - a highly bushy plant with sharp-tasting leaves up to half a meter long.
In the open ground, chives seeds (consumption 1-1.5 g per 1 sq. M) are sown to a depth of 2 cm according to the 5 × 25-30 cm pattern, and the delenki are planted in rows with distances of 30 × 30-50 cm.
In the second year, from the first decade of May to the end of September, the feather is cut off, and in an annual culture they are completely removed when the leaves reach 30 cm.
Batun (Tatar, shortbread, butoon, Chinese) looks very similar to young onions, but its leaves are more powerful and twice as rich as vitamin C.
The whole variety of forms of a rod is represented by three subspecies.
In plants Russian small, not more than 40 cm, dark green, pungent leaves. They branch strongly (in the third year they give 30-50 branches), they do not freeze even in the most severe winters with frosts up to 50 ° C.
Russian winter - A new mid-early winter-hardy, highly branched variety. Its dark green, semi-sharp taste leaves do not coarse for a long time, and the bush does not shoot.
Average in power, branching and winter hardiness Japanese subspecies. It includes several varieties.
Salad 35 - an early ripening peninsular zoned variety. In the second year it gives two or three branches. Each has five dark green leaves, up to 45 cm long. Plants shoot early, so the period of collection of greens is short.
April - early ripening grade. The leaves are tender, juicy, with a peninsular taste, bright green, up to 40 cm long. It shoots late.
May - strongly branching late ripening variety. The leaves are dark green with a strong waxy coating, pungent taste and quickly coarse.
Parade - A variety for an annual culture with a high (up to 60 cm), powerful, upright leaf outlet. The leaves are tender, juicy, green with a bluish tint, do not coarse for a long time.
The most heat-loving bows from Chinese subspecies. It gives only 3-5 branches, but very large (up to 130 cm tall) with juicy, pungent taste and large diameter leaves. There are no regionalized varieties, but it is found in private gardens.
With a one-year culture of the batun seeds (consumption of 1-1.5 g per square meter) are planted in early spring and the whole plant is harvested next spring. Usually sown with a distance between stitches of 25, and tapes - 50-60 cm.
With a long-term culture, sowing lasts from mid-June to August. Delenki is planted in mid-summer in an ordinary way according to the scheme of 20-30 × 50 cm. Leaves are cut in a year at a height of 25 cm. For a season - up to three cuts, but the last no later than August.
At slizuna (drooping onion) leaves are flat, up to 30-50 cm long and up to 2 cm wide. They are very fragile, but juicy, with a pleasant onion-garlic taste without strong sharpness. Moreover, they are not rude and retain their dignity until the fall.
Slime is resistant to peronosporosis and adverse conditions, rich in ascorbic acid, bioactive polysaccharides and salts that are important for health. He is advised to eat with anemia and cardiovascular disease.
This onion is grown only as a perennial. Branches all season and forms a squat plant with a cylindrical shortened "bulb". In the second year, it grows up to four branches and several flower arrows up to 60 cm high, each ending with a spherical umbrella-inflorescence.
Seeds (1 g per square meter) are sown in April-May on ridges, and delenki planted in June-August in rows of 30 × 40. Cut leaves begin at a length of 25 cm.
During the season they collect up to 7 kg of greens with sq.m.
Only one variety is zoned everywhere in Russia Green. This is a semi-spreading or compact plant with a powerful rhizome and large, juicy leaves. They are gentle, slightly sharp in taste, with a garlic odor.
Recently, breeders have created a new winter-hardy mid-season salad variety Broadleaf. It has a squat false stem and long, wide, lanceolate leaves with a slightly sharp pleasant taste and smell. They are rich in ascorbic acid, retain tenderness until late autumn. For a season with 1 sq.m of broadleaf plantings, you can collect 3 kg of greenery.
Allspice onions good in that it has little fiber and it retains tenderness all season. Its tapeworm leaves, unlike slime, are not sharp, richer in vitamin C (up to 100 mg%) and grow continuously until late autumn.
In the first year, two shoots are formed, on each 3-6 leaves 30 cm long, and in the second year, flowering arrows with white flowers collected in a simple umbrella. The flowers exude a pleasant smell, like hyacinth or almond.
From fragrant onions, the variety is zoned Astrologer (in all areas). Its dark green leaves quickly grow to 60 cm long, a leaf width of 1.5 cm. The variety is distinguished by a semi-acute weak garlic taste. A new promising mid-season variety has been introduced. Spicy. It is more winter-hardy and richer in vitamin C.
As you can see, perennial onions, including varietal ones, are becoming more and more every year. Fresh they are added to salads, as seasonings for the first and second courses. They can be dried, salted and fermented, while the beneficial properties are perfectly preserved. We hope we have convinced you, dear readers, that it is time to think seriously about the onion corner!
Author: L. Agafonov, breeder