Cotton - Denim Plant
All of our favorite jeans are made of cotton fabric. And the thread from which this fabric was woven was born in a small seed box, inside the fruit of an inconspicuous heat-loving plant - cotton. Green fields of cotton, bloomed in summer with white, cream or pink flowers of plants can be found in various parts of the world - in Egypt, in the south of Europe and the USA, in India and Uzbekistan. When the petals fall, the flower turns into a fruit - a green box with seeds.
The box gradually increases in size, dries and turns brown. All this time, cotton seeds ripen in it, wrapped in soft, delicate hairs (fibers). When the swollen hairs become cramped, they open the cusps and knock out - the plants suddenly become covered with shreds of fluffy white cotton wool. The plant needs these hairs in order for the wind to pick up the seeds and spread them around.
Cotton (Gossypium) - genus of plants of the family Malvaceae (Malvaceae), combining about 50 plant species. Cultivated forms of cotton are grown around the world. Cotton is a source of plant fibers for the textile industry - cotton.
Plants of the genus Cotton - one- or two-year-old herbaceous plants up to 1-2 m high with very branched stems. The root system is pivotal, the root goes into the soil to a depth of 30 cm, in some varieties reaches three meters.
The leaves of cotton are alternate, with long petioles, usually 3-5 lobed.
Cotton flowers are single, numerous, of various colors. The flower consists of a corolla with three to five wide and fused petals and a double five-toothed green calyx surrounded by a three-bladed wrapper, which is many times longer than the calyx. Numerous stamens fuse into the tube.
The fruit of cotton is a box, sometimes more round, in other cases oval, 3-5-split, cracking along the valves, with numerous dark brown seeds inside it, covered on the surface with soft winding hairs - cotton.
Two types of cotton hairs are separated. They can be long and fluffy or short and fleecy - the so-called lint, cotton fluff. Depending on the variety and growing conditions, both types of hairs can be on the seed, and only long ones. Wild species have no long hairs. The seed of cotton, covered with a dense peel, contains a germ consisting of a root and two seed lobes.
Cotton Harvesting and Processing
Harvested cotton in the fall. They clean it manually or with the help of special cotton pickers. Although hand-picked cotton is considered to be of better quality, using cotton machines is much cheaper for cotton farmers. A cotton picker moving across the field first wraps fibers on rotating spindles and then sucks them into a special hopper. Harvested cotton is mixed with the seeds of the plant - it is called raw cotton.
Cotton fibers are cleaned from seeds at ginneries. Then the cotton is cleaned of dust, packaged in bales and sent to spinning mills, where the fibers (yarn) are produced from fibers. Now, various fabrics can be woven from threads, and a variety of textile products can be sewn from fabrics. Clothing made of cotton fabric is cheap, strong, durable and well washed. And most importantly - it is pleasant to wear it, because it allows our skin to breathe.
Cotton seeds are also widely used. Cotton oil is obtained from them, which is used for the production of margarine, canned food and other products, and the remaining cake is fed to the pet. It is used in other industries.
Cotton growing at home
In indoor conditions, annual cotton is more often grown.
Cotton prefers warm, sunny and draft-protected places. He tolerates the summer heat well enough, but can die from lower temperatures: drafts or frosts.
Watering the cotton, like many other plants, follows as the earthen coma in the pot dries. Cotton can be fed several times a month with conventional fertilizer for flowering plants.
Cotton propagation at home
Cotton is propagated by seeds. They are sown early enough, approximately in January or February, while digging the seeds into the soil by about 1 cm. After this, it is advisable for the seedlings to create a greenhouse, or cover with glass. Cotton is grown in a bright place at a temperature of +22 ° C to +24 ° C.
The first sprouts of cotton appear in a few days. During this period, they need to provide sufficient moisture, but trying not to damage the delicate stems of seedlings.
When the plants get crowded, they need to be diced into a larger tank. Upon reaching 10 cm in height, the plants are planted in pots with a diameter of 15 cm. In these pots, they will remain until autumn.
Cotton blooms usually 8 weeks after emergence.