How to cover grapes for the winter?
From ancient times, grapes accompany a person, quench thirst, amuse the soul, and heal the body. With rolling success, the vine is also cultivated in Russia, beginning in the late 16th century. The success was transient, because in some snowy winters, he successfully kept the root system (under the snow) from high negative temperatures, in the spring formed an aerial mass and crop. Over time, it became clear that for the conditions of Russia grape varieties with special properties are needed: increased resistance of the root system to negative temperatures and increased resistance of the vines to winter frosts. To avoid losses, it is necessary to cover the vineyard in winter, especially table varieties, and you need to do this correctly - this is in our today's article.
- Preparing grapes for the winter cold
- Covering material disinfection
- Types of Shelter for the Vine
- Opening grapes in spring
- Non-covering grape varieties for growing in the country
Preparing grapes for the winter cold
The bred varieties for the middle and northern regions of Russia contributed to its advance to the North, and today grapes form good yields both in the Urals and in the northern regions. But the genetic memory of the grapes about the past still requires conditions for growing close to those where viticulture originated: the required amount of thermal temperatures, adequate lighting and shelter from late autumn and winter cold. Temperature changes often cause the death of unripe vines and young seedlings.
Grape growers with experience in their household arsenal have a whole range of winter covering devices: spunbond, burlap, mats, straw, nets, wooden racks, boards, etc.
Depending on the region of cultivation, the duration of cold weather, snow cover, spring and autumn weather patterns, sheltering vineyards in dachas and adjoining areas use different types of shelters.
Grapes must be prepared for shelter. Otherwise, rodents can gnaw the roots and the vine, mold and other fungal diseases will appear on improperly covered lashes, eyes will die, etc.
To properly prepare the bushes for wintering, you must perform the following preparatory work:
- With dry autumn, water the grape bushes abundantly.
- In September, feed the grape bushes with potash or phosphorus-potash fertilizers.
- After falling leaves, pruning unripe vines. It has a green or greenish color. An unripe vine in the winter always freezes.
- In addition to sanitary pruning of unripe grape shoots, form a load, leaving 2-3 buds above the norm for spring control.
- To process grape bushes with a 3% solution of copper or iron sulfate, solutions of other drugs from diseases and pests.
- Prepare for shelter the aerial part of the vine bushes. Remove from the wire, tie the shoots into loose bundles.
- Prepare trenches (if provided by technology) for laying grapevines for shelter.
- Prepare cover material.
Covering material disinfection
- Spunbond, burlap, mats used for sheltering grapes must be dried, cleaned and treated with working solutions of antifungal drugs immediately after removing shelters in spring. Gently fold until autumn in a dry place, inaccessible to precipitation.
- Wooden floorings, roofing felt, straw and reed mats should also be carefully treated with a 5-7% solution of copper sulfate or other compounds from diseases and pests. Fold neatly under a canopy.
- In the fall, before sheltering the grapes, all prepared materials should be reviewed. Decayed to throw and destroy.
- By autumn, prepare the missing cover reeds or straw mats, straw, autumn leaf litter, coniferous spruce can be. Dry the fallen leaves, treat them with preparations from fungal diseases and pests.
- Harvest and dry bunches of grass insecticides from pests, including rodents (tansy, wormwood, marigolds, marigolds and others). Stalks of grass insecticides can cross leaves, straw, mats. You can sprinkle with dust or shift poisonous bait from rodents and other pests.
Types of Shelter for the Vine
Shelters for the vine can be divided into several types:
- near the standard grape digging;
- half-shelter of grapes;
- full shelter of the vine for the cold period.
Regardless of the region, young 1-2-year-old seedlings, European varieties, unstable to temperature extremes, and hybrid forms need shelter.
Near the standard grape digging
In the south, they begin sheltering grapes around mid-November. After the preparation and implementation of all necessary measures for the preparation of the aboveground mass for the winter period, shelter the grape root system.
Since the roots of grapes begin to freeze at -5 ..- 7 ° С, then during the first frosts within 0 ..- 2-4 ° С, an earthen hill is formed around the stem.
For near-grape shelter grapes use the earth from aisles. Sheltering is carried out so that the head of the bush of grapes and the lower part of the stem are completely covered. A hill is formed with a diameter of at least 30 cm and a height of 10-25 cm (focusing on the age of the bush and root system).
A well-ripened vine of frost-resistant grape varieties can withstand frosts down to -15 ° С. After sheltering the root system, the vine is simply removed from the support and laid on the bottom wire or through the litter (board, plywood) to the ground. If frosts do not exceed -15 ° C, then no more covering work is performed. If there is a further decrease in temperature, urgent covering work is urgently carried out.
Half-shelter of grapes
In some southern regions and in the middle zone of Russia, a bush half-shelter is used to protect against frost. Its difference is that only part of the bush closest to the soil is protected from frost.
Given that the cold accumulates in the surface layer, near the vine bushes cover the head, lower sleeves and the bases of the shoots. The above parts of the plants are protected with cover materials, wrapping them in a protective suit of straw, spunbond, old bedspreads. Protection should be at least 4 cm. To prevent the wind from breaking off the wrapper, it is reinforced with twine. All work is done carefully so as not to break off the kidneys.
You can cover the above-ground mass of grapes in another way. On the sides of the bush to make shallow trenches. Bend down the whips to the ground, pin and also sprinkle with earth. Over the ground, shoot arches may remain. They are left open or covered with various materials. Use mats, old blankets, plaids, spunbond or agrofiber. Cover carefully so as not to break off the kidneys.
On top of the shelter they pull the film, fixing it with willow arches or twine, and sprinkle its edges with earth. Leave vents below so that during the warm autumn temperature changes the grape bushes do not mold.
The ripened vine of young vine bushes can simply be laid in the dug shallow trenches and sprinkled with 10-15 cm layer of earth. So that water does not accumulate in the recesses of the aisles, where they took the soil for backfilling, they must dig this place.
Low grape bushes can be neatly tied into a loose bunch and wrapped with insulation. Get winter clothes for the bush.
Young grape seedlings for the winter are covered with bottles. It is most convenient to use 3-5 liter clear bottles. Cut the bottom and drive the bottom of the bottles into the ground. Unscrew the cork. The bottle is covered with earth on all sides.
Full shelter of grapes
Complete shelter of grape bushes is carried out in regions where the temperature in the winter months drops below -20 ° C. After completing all the preparatory work, cover the head of the bush with earth. The vine is removed from the trellis, carefully tied into a loose bunch and laid on prepared bedding from slate, boards, plywood. They serve as insulation for the vines from the ground. The vine must be isolated from the ground.
They pin it to the ground with arches so that the connected vine of grapes does not hump high above the ground. The laid aerial part of the plants is covered with pre-prepared covering material: burlap, plaids, reeds, straw mats. The covering material must be natural, artificial materials do not keep heat. The vine may die. Gently poke shelter.
The insulation film is pulled from above and fixed with arc-staples or U-shaped structures. The ends of the film are sprinkled with earth and make sure that the film does not come into contact with the kidneys. Leave sure-air gaps, so that the vine does not steam.
Some winegrowers pin the prepared vine in arcs to the soil and fill it with a layer of earth of 15-30 cm, and when snow falls, they also throw snow.
If it is not possible to remove the vine from the trellis or other high support, then the vine is wrapped and attached to the support. In this case, the roots are protected separately, but carefully. They pour a hill of earth, covering the head, lower sleeves and shtamb, encircled with spruce branches and tied with twine. They throw it with snow and make sure that it covers the lapnik with a hat. Do not allow its exposure, otherwise the vine may freeze.
In cold regions with prolonged frosts, they make from the spruce branch or wooden shield a kind of house or box, which is covered with dry leaves or straw. Top cover with straw mats, mats and cover with slate or heavy board. In the spring, the structure is dismantled and the bush freed.
It is more rational to shelter young or small grape bushes with such structures. You can also make such a shelter for a vine removed from a trellis, tied in loose bunches. When filling the shelter with leaves or straw, and with any other type of shelter, be sure to lay out the poison bait against rodents at the base of the stem and shift the stuffing with stems of insecticide plants. Rodents will not come to such a house.
Opening grapes in spring
The grapes begin to open in the third decade of April - early May. With the onset of sustainable warming, you need to remove the film so that condensation does not form, which can destroy swollen kidneys.
All shelter grapes are removed when the first sprouts appear. Removal of shelters is best done in the evening or in cloudy weather, so that young shoots and buds do not receive a sunburn. The entire packing is collected and burned or moved to the aisles and sprinkled with earth. The mulch will decay and will serve as an organic fertilizer.
With the onset of stable positive temperatures, they scoop up the earth and free the base of the grape stem, lower sleeves, raise the vine to the supports. In the same period, the state of the vine is monitored. They rake up the earth with a rake for the flow of oxygen to the roots. If the bushes were simply covered with roofing material or a film and covered with snow, then the snow cover is raked, leaving only permanent shelter.
On warm days, the film or ruberoid can be removed, dried, and at night cover vine bushes again until constant positive temperatures are established.
Preserving grapes when grown in cold regions requires labor and effort. Therefore, in cottages it is better to grow winter-hardy varieties that do not require complex protective structures and can do without shelters or only under the protection of the root system.
Non-covering grape varieties for growing in the country
Frost-resistant grape varieties in the southern regions do not shelter for the winter. The following non-covering varieties can be recommended for the southern regions and the middle zone: Lydia, Rapture, Isabella, Victoria, Christina, Strashensky, Laura, Amethystovy, Ontario, Extra, Talisman, Arkady, Negrul and others.
The same varieties with partial or complete shelter for the winter can be successfully grown in the northern regions. They withstand frosts down to -25 ° C. According to the materials of some winegrowers, the given grape varieties withstood temperatures up to -35 ..- 40ºС.
Of the more modern grape varieties, be sure to pay tribute to Samantha. Extremely resistant to disease and frost, with a beautiful large brush, unusual taste. Of the early varieties, the best and most common are the grape varieties Pineapple, Rogachevsky. The Buffalo hybrid stands out from the group of isabel cultivars.
With arched formation, Buffalo forms a crop of more than 100 kg from the bush. The grape varieties Gentle and Lucille are distinguished by their unusual taste. Lucily berries are intensely pink with a strong floral aroma; in the Gentle variety, the berries are pink-purple with a pleasant muscat aroma and taste.