About frost-resistant grapes
If I started my summer cottage business anew and if 30 years ago it would have been easier with cottage construction, which took a lot of time and energy, distracting from gardening, I would seriously engage in viticulture. Now you can very quickly get any necessary information about growing any garden crops, as well as buy any necessary seeds or seedlings (via the Internet, of course). Then everything was more complicated. Thanks to the younger generation (my son and his friends), three grape bushes nevertheless grew in my area. At first I looked at them as a decorative vine: they give a shadow on the porch and well. Then I look - on the branches a few clusters of grapes spawn. “How good, I think, the grandchildren will have something to feast on (besides our traditional berries - cherries, currants, plums, raspberries, etc.). And then the son mastered the technology of pruning grapes using the Internet. And a miracle happened: three vines mutilated so many grapes that it was enough for food and wine. And I like to make homemade wine, as readers of Botanichki already know. A little experience in growing my first three vine bushes convinced me that viticulture is much more interesting than cultivating in the garden traditional for the Tver region berry bushes - raspberries, currants, gooseberries, etc. And not only more interesting, but also more productive.
On the Internet, I found out that more and more gardeners are now cultivating winter-hardy grapes. It turns out that philosophers are truly right: ideas and insights come simultaneously to many people. I received a special impression from the statements of gardeners about the cultivation of winter-hardy grape varieties:
- “On my plot of grape bushes, like weeds”;
- “This year the summer was unfavorable, but I gathered a ton of winter-hardy grapes.”
Doubt could have arisen if one lady had not invited to visit her site (next door). On the site, an arched terrace led from the house to the river, all entwined with vines that were literally strewn with bunches of grapes. Knowing the hostess’s indifferent attitude to agriculture and the gifts of nature, it was not difficult to assume that this grape had not seen the owner’s affection for a long time, in recent years it grew by itself and served only as an ornamental shrub (rather thickened). Nevertheless, there were 300 kilograms of berries on it. When I found out about winter-hardy grape varieties that can withstand frosts of -32 ° C, my sympathy for this culture was finally established.
It is believed that winter-hardy grape varieties require much less effort to care for them, which is why they are becoming increasingly popular among gardeners in central Russia and Siberia. They are successfully used, as the fastest growing, for landscaping the site (especially arbors, verandas, walls of houses, hedges), and as table varieties for making wine, juice, fruit drinks or fresh consumption. Experienced winegrowers will tell you that winter-hardy grape varieties have a "high degree of fruiting." However, their positive property leads to overloading of bushes and, as a result, the quality of the crop may decrease, the berries ripen poorly, and the winter hardiness of the bushes weakens. With a high harvest, grapes direct nutrients to the full ripening of berries, but to strengthen new shoots they do not remain, and they poorly develop. At the same time, the required amount of nutrients is not stored in the roots, so the bush is depleted and may die.
The so-called rationing of the crop eases the load on the bush. For this, pruning is recommended in early spring. In winter, part of the kidneys may die due to freezing or drying out, so in the spring you need to carefully examine the vine in order to detect dead eyes and, based on this, prune. Many recommend pruning grapes in the fall, and then remove the vine from its supports, wrap it with “breathable” covering material, lay it on the ground, cover it with fallen leaves, and in winter it is advisable to cover it with snow. You can often read that if you take care of sheltering the grape pets for the winter, the vines will thank you. Is that why Siberians are so happy in the snowy winters. There is a lot of snow in Siberia, and snow means warmth and purity, the absence of an infectious background. Bushes are clean, without signs of fungal diseases. So experienced growers say that grapes can tolerate even severe frosts, but only if well covered in snow. It is believed that a snow layer of 10 centimeters gives plants 10 degrees of heat.
In any case, even after severe frosts, there is hope for success, because winter-hardy grape varieties have a large substitution force. Each underground kidney, located on the stem, has many others - small, sleeping. These are leafy buds that are more frost-resistant than fruit buds and they can survive underground for several years. Experts know that under each bud of the vine there is a diaphragm that contains the embryos of future roots. They consider the vine to be the most frost-resistant part of the plant, capable of withstanding frosts to minus 20 degrees. Even if the roots are frozen, a new grape bush can always be grown from the vine. That is why you can safely give winter-hardy grapes a place in your garden.
I want to inform the readers of Botanichki about the grape varieties that I have looked after and will order.
This is a grape variety of European-Amur origin, with an average growth force, a very early ripening period (up to 115 days). Bunches of medium size, weighing 200-300 grams, moderately dense. The berries are medium, weighing 2–4 grams, slightly oval, white. The pulp is juicy, the skin is strong, sugar content is 18-19%. The ripening of the shoots is very good (90-100%). The load is 50 eyes per bush, with the length of pruning fruit vines for 3-4 eyes. It is important to know that when the bush is thickened, the ovary is shed, as a result of the bunch become frail, the yield decreases. Therefore, high-quality pruning and rationing of the crop are necessary. Harvested on the bushes for almost the entire season. The variety is resistant to frost (-29ºС), mildew, oidium, gray rot is not damaged. Used for making dry table wines and Heris wines.
The variety was bred as a result of crossing varieties North and Muscat of Hamburg. Its bushes are vigorous, Variety Marinovsky belongs to the mid-late maturity wine varieties. The bunch is large, with an average weight of 280-300 grams. Berry 12 x 14 mm, slightly oval, dark blue. The peel is strong, juicy flesh, sugar content 24%. Used for the preparation of juices, excellent dry wines, as well as for fresh consumption.
The variety came to Russia from North America, is a natural hybrid between the species of Lambrusk and Winnifer. Refers to technical varieties of mid-late ripening. Bushes are vigorous, shoots ripen well. The clusters are small, slightly conical, almost cylindrical, loose. The berries are medium, round or slightly oval, black with a bluish tint, with a peculiar strawberry flavor. It is characterized by increased resistance to frost, fungal diseases and phylloxera. The variety is interesting for decorative purposes: the design of arbors, arches, etc .; ripens well, easily rooted. The load on the bush depends on the shape and power of the bush. Pruning vines for fruiting 6-8 eyes. Winter hardiness is high (-32ºС). Resistant to mildew and gray rot, poorly protected from oidium.
A complex interspecific hybrid of grapes for industrial use, German selection (Heisenheim), average ripening period (130-135 days). Growth is medium or above average. Shoot ripening is good. The clusters are cylindrical, of medium size, weighing 120-150 g, medium density. The berries are medium, weighing about 1.4 g, rounded, white in the sun with a pink rose. The pulp is juicy, the skin is thin, strong. Fruitful shoots up to 95%, fruiting is good. A load of 60 eyes per bush with a length of pruning fruit vines for 3-4 eyes. Well compatible with stocks. It bears fruit well, is prone to overloading crops, but still requires regulation of the load of the berries. Resistance to frost -26 ° C, more or less resistant to mildew, oidium, to phylloxera, resistant to gray rot. Distributed in Germany, USA, Canada, New Zealand. Used to make dry table wines.
Hybrid (Vitis Labruska x Vitis Riparia), bred at the Far Eastern station VIR. Belongs to technical grades of average ripening term. Bushes are strong. The bunch is average, weighing 150-180 g, cylindrical, medium density. The berry is medium (diameter 16-17mm), round, black, with an "isabelous" flavor. The skin is easily separated from the pulp. Berries ripen in early September. Very productive grade. The number of clusters per fruitful shoot is 3-4. The ripening of the shoots is very good. It has excellent rooting. Due to its high frost resistance, the variety is included in the standard assortment of the Primorsky Territory, as well as in other areas of northern viticulture. The variety is fully resistant to disease. Alpha is used for landscaping houses, gazebos, hedges and awnings (considered the best grade for decorative purposes), and most importantly - for making dry wines.
P.S. In conclusion, it seems appropriate to give a list of some non-covering and conditionally covering grape varieties recommended for cultivation in not very favorable climatic zones of Russia.
- Non-covering grape varietiesand. There are a lot of them, here are just some of them: Alpha, Amethyst, Amur Potapenko, Amur triumph, Amur breakthrough, Valiant, Golubok, Isabella, Crystal, Kay Gray, Londo Noir, Lydia, Lyubava, Lucille, Marinovsky, Mure Erli, Saperavi northern, Seneca, Triumph, Winchel, Extra, etc. Non-covering varieties can tolerate frosts with a temperature of minus 28 degrees, and some up to minus 32 degrees.
- Conditionally covering varieties: Don Agate, Adele, Aleshenkin, Pineapple early, Arctic, Armalag, Balabanovsky, Vulture, Far Eastern Novikova, Gentle, Korinka Russian, Beauty of the North, Liepajas dzintars, Olesya Far Eastern, Memory of Dombkovskaya, Rogachevsky, Russian Taeseman, Pink Besseman , Tsirawas Agraa, Juodupe, etc.
My friends, as you see, there is something to choose and purchase - whole plants in pots or at least cuttings. So, go for it, grow grapes on your plots, success to you!