Greenhouse mold control measures
Greenhouse - an enclosed space in which the soil is in special conditions. Unlike open hothouse soil, it is deprived of the possibility of self-healing. All biological processes pass in it faster, the negative flora and fauna accumulate more intensively. Quickly depleting soil in order to ensure optimal conditions for growing the necessary products constantly requires replenishment with nutrients and moisture, adequate lighting and temperature of air and soil. Changes in air humidity in combination with high temperature contribute to the rapid growth of molds affecting living plants, as well as destroying any wooden structures of greenhouses or hotbeds, which negatively affect human health.
What is mold fungi?
In the plant system, fungi are allocated into a separate kingdom in wildlife. In total there are more than 250 species of fungal organisms, grouped according to biological characteristics into groups and orders. In the modern international classification, mold fungi (Fungi bissoidei) are allocated in the 6th order and are represented mainly by unicellular, less commonly multicellular organisms. They are called micromycetes due to the microscopic size of individual representatives.
Usually mold grows in large colonies, the appearance of which is represented by branching mycelium without large fruiting bodies. Most fungi belong to obligate or facultative parasites (i.e., parasites that can live in the host environment or on their own). Mold spores are able to survive in space, permafrost, in conditions of increased radiation. Only some species die when exposed to them for at least 3 hours at temperatures above + 100 ° C.
Places of distribution of molds
Mold fungi can live and breed in water or soil. Their vast colonies are ubiquitous in warm, humid places with a sufficient nutrient medium. Such an environment for molds is greenhouse soil. The quality of the substrate determines the health of plants, which depends on the quality of the grown seedlings. A change in the quality parameters of the soil soil of the greenhouse negatively affects the growth and development of seedlings. The primary manifestation of the defeat of seedlings by greenhouse mushrooms begins with the appearance on the greenhouse soil of a whitish coating, which is a mycelium of harmful fungal.
Causes of mold in the greenhouse
Violation of the rules of agricultural technology when growing crops and seedlings in a protected ground, which leads to the predominant development of pathogenic microflora.
Mold is distributed mainly in dirty rooms. Therefore, the greenhouse must be systematically cleaned and treated with antifungal drugs (wash, whitewash, paint, etc.).
Mold propagation conditions
Microscopic spores are easily tolerated by air currents and are able to sleep for several tens or more years. Under suitable conditions, rapid growth and reproduction begins with the capture of living plants with soft tissues (seedlings of vegetable crops, tomatoes, cucumbers, etc.).
The optimal conditions for the spread of harmful fungal are:
- indoor humidity above 95%,
- indoor air temperature +20 .. + 22 ° С,
- lack of ventilation, poor ventilation,
- increased soil moisture with stagnation of water at the root system after irrigation, due to improper irrigation, water leakage in places of damage to the irrigation hose,
- insufficient lighting (cloudy weather without additional illumination, insufficient amount of ultraviolet rays entering the thickened landings).
Preventive measures and mold control in greenhouses
Mold is associated with biocorrosion and decomposition of vegetation. Therefore, mold grows most strongly in the autumn. However, a single use of drugs will not provide an effect in the fight against mold. To create optimal conditions for the growth and development of plants, in a protected ground a system of measures is needed.
In the fall, after harvesting, the greenhouse / greenhouse must be decontaminated in preparation for the next season of growing seedlings and vegetable crops in a non-seedling way. There are several ways to disinfect a greenhouse and soil.
One of the effective ways to kill mold is to treat the room with a sulfur block “FAS”.
If mold was found in the greenhouse in the previous year, then in the spring it is necessary to repeat the disinfecting treatment of the room with a solution of potassium permanganate with the addition of adhesives (soap can be used).
During the growing of seedlings and crops, conduct constant monitoring of air and soil humidity indicators.
Keep the irrigation system in good working condition. Avoid waterlogging. When a black leg appears in the seedlings (one of the indicators of waterlogging), sprinkle the soil under the seedlings with dry sand. Ventilate the greenhouse thoroughly (without draft).
Mold does not tolerate an alkaline environment, so greenhouse soil under all plants 2-3 times a season with an interval of 3-4 weeks should be dusted with a mixture of ash and charcoal (1: 1), ground into powder.
When mold appears on the soil (especially compacted), greenhouse soil can be treated with peat, which is represented by dry briquettes of high peat. Torfoline contains a synthetic polymer that serves as a baking powder in the soil and, when soaked, increases its volume several times. To neutralize the acidity of the soil, the treatment is carried out with a copper solution of peatoline, water-soluble mineral fertilizers are added.
To prevent damage to plants by fungal diseases (blackleg, fusarium wilting, root and root rot, etc.), plants are treated with biofungicides 8-10 days after germination, using phytosporin-M, foundationazole, Alirin-B, Gamair-SP, Planriz according to recommendations -G. The same biofungicides can be used for tillage under plants. Treatment with biological products (soil and plant) is repeated after 15-20 days, unless otherwise specified in the recommendations.
When growing seedlings at home, it is better to use specialized soils, especially for beginners in gardening. Such soils are specially treated from diseases and pests and fertilized in accordance with agricultural requirements.
Growing seedlings and seedlings in greenhouse and home conditions requires strict observance of agrotechnical measures. Otherwise, the protective measures applied may not have the desired effect.
Remember - mold is not harmless to human health. In a room infected with mold, a person can get bronchitis, bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, otitis media. Settling on the lungs, mold spores cause pulmonary diseases, up to oncological tumors. Do not use foods, including vegetables and fruits, affected by mold.