White mushroom in faces, or What are mushrooms?
To pick white mushrooms is the dream of every mushroom picker. The volume is highly dependent on ambition: one for a complete puppy's delight is enough for five pieces, others will be satisfied only with a full trunk. In any situation, typing ceps, you feel like a getter and lucky. But sometimes, under the guise of ceps, inexperienced mushroom pickers can pick up completely non-cep mushrooms. And well, if they are edible, but if not? What kind of ceps are, and what mushrooms can be confused with, I will tell in the article.
What are porcini mushrooms?
White mushroom (lat.Bolétus edúlis) - the beauty and pride of our forests. And not ours either. Apparently, for everyone to have enough happiness, the mushroom is distributed almost throughout our large country where there are trees, since it is a mycorrhiza forming agent. That is, the mycelium settles in the roots of the plant, receiving carbohydrates and amino acids from it, for its part making water and phosphorus compounds more accessible for the tree.
White mushroom prefers to cohabit with spruce, pine, oak, birch. But it can get along with other conifers and deciduous trees, if there are no favorite trees in the vicinity, and these mushrooms can not grow.
In different forests, they look different, masking themselves in the local foliage, grass and landscape features. For this, scientists (ours, not British) divided them into different forms, the amount of about two dozen.
As often happens, mycologists have no consensus on the number of forms and species; periodically, fungi move from one classification section to another, but this does not in any way affect mushroom pickers. And it will not be reflected. Because the white mushroom in all its varieties is white: it has white cuts on the cut, which do not change color, legs and flesh of a hat. No matter how you press it, bluish and pinkish spots do not form on it. Clean and white. The tubular layer (bottom of the cap) at a young age is white, on average yellow, in old - greenish.
The smell of raw mushroom is described in the literature in different ways, most often as weak. But it seems to me quite palpable, mushroom, pleasant. And in heat treatment and drying it is revealed at full power.
In all places and species, the fungus captivates with its thoroughness: a wide stable leg and a thick, tight-fitting hat. In this case, the color of the hat can be very different within the cream-yellow-brown tones.
Porcini mushroom is a good family man: it’s worth spinning around for a while - there will certainly be relatives of different ages, from pot-bellied small fry to wormy patriarchs. Unless, of course, competitors have yet to be here.
Forest competitors of mushroom pickers, or Whom are cepes “afraid” of?
Mushroom mushroom competitors are not only external (with baskets), but also internal, forest ones, claiming their portions of delicious mushroom.
For example, boars - they are looking for mushrooms by smell, so they have more prospects. Eats white clean. Squirrels can take away medium-sized mushrooms and artistically hang them on branches for drying. But the hedgehog with the mushroom is nonsense. They don’t eat mushrooms, they prefer meat.
Slugs behave very ugly - at night, while everyone is sleeping, they gnaw holes and whole holes in the mushroom hats, leaving their excrement there as well. Not only that, slugs choose mushrooms as a temporary home, combined with a feeder. Often, as a whole, with a seemingly borovichka, you already find a slug sleeping sweetly in a gnawed shelter at home.
But the mushrooms of the larvae of mushroom mosquitoes, of which there are more than 50 species, are brought to a state of almost complete culinary unsuitability, and the number is such that almost any edible mushroom is sooner or later spoiled. The chances of grabbing pure mushrooms for yourself increase with decreasing temperature, as mosquitoes below + 15 ° C lose their craving for reproduction.
Worse than competitors, mushrooms are hypocrites, striving for their appearance to deceive the gullible mushroomer, pretending to be a white mushroom.
Harmless and not very porcini mushrooms - “fakes”
Sometimes found boletus (chubby), polish mushrooms and moss flyerssimilar to white, but it’s not scary, because they are all quite edible. Well, some disappointment - and that’s it. When pressed, they darken (turn blue, turn green) and on the cut - too.
Harmless enough valuy. At some stages of its development, looking from above, you can confuse it with a cep. But even when touched, it becomes clear that this is a mistake - the hat at the valuy is covered with characteristic mucus. And besides the top view, there is nothing in common. The bottom is lamellar, the leg is hollow.
It is considered conditionally edible; there is a lot of fuss to get an edible product. There is a sense to take only in bulk. Who does not know how to cook - it’s better not to put in the basket. A ripped mushroom to hang on a twig, forest residents will figure it out.
Mushroom, again, when viewed from above, it is easy to confuse with a cep. And to the touch, too, since the hat is dense with a tubular bottom layer, the leg is thick. I met such mushrooms with a very light pink leg. The tubular layer is light, like white, but when pressed, it turns blue, at the break the hat also turns blue. The mushroom is inedible, bitter, and there is even information about its toxicity. It’s nice to take pictures, it’s photogenic. This is better and limited.
Boletus rooting, another, more honest, name - boletus bitter mushroom. Bitterness is not removed by any culinary treatment. It turns blue at the break. And although it smells nice and looks extremely attractive, it is better to leave it in the forest. Judging by the often found mushrooms with eaten legs and hats, there are gourmet masochists in the forest. These boletus are more thermophilic than classical white; they gravitate towards the southern regions.
And here gall mushroom or Gorchak grows everywhere, unless it prefers acidic soil. It may be similar to both white and boletus. The flesh is white, turns pink. And when you click on the tubular layer also turns pink. When cooking, bitterness intensifies. The most annoying - and the worms do not eat it!
Well satanic mushroom also when viewed from above, and sometimes from the side, can be confused with white. The cut or break put everything in its place - it turns blue. Not very strong and not very fast. And the base of the tubular layer is reddish. Also very bitter, there is evidence of its toxicity to the liver. Like the above boletus, gravitates to the south.
How not to make a mistake with porcini mushrooms?
That is, if the goal is to recruit exactly the whites, the best option is to incise and break mushrooms in the forest. There will be nothing for White, he will remain so white, and any falsification will surely turn blue / turn pink / green, in general, will betray itself completely.
In this case, undesirable mushrooms are not needed to be crushed into cabbage, each mushroom has its own purpose. Moose are treated with fly agaric. And the fact that we do not know this destination is exclusively our problems. There is no need to stomp, either - so you can spread disputes throughout the forest. Do not like it - let it remain where it was.
Over time, of course, every mushroom picker begins to distinguish in appearance the cep mushroom from the rest. But this is a matter of lengthy and constant training, and for some "experimenters" combined with gastrointestinal disorders.
If the mushroom is white in all respects, if it is picked not near the highway or in the vicinity of chemical plants / landfills / storages of unhealthy substances, then it can be eaten raw. But fried with onions and sour cream - much tastier.
About the nutritional value of porcini mushrooms
Unfortunately, fried porcini mushrooms with onions and sour cream are not particularly useful. Eating mushrooms in this way is like using a smartphone only to send SMS messages. The lion's share of nutrients will go to waste.
In this case, the digestive system will be torn, trying to digest chitin, which is part of the cell walls of the fungi. But it will not, and together with the cells a lot of useful things will go to waste: vitamins, minerals, proteins, polysaccharides.
Chitin is the main component of the exoskeleton of arthropods, for example, crayfish, shrimp, and crab. Or locusts. In the process of changing nutrition, people almost lost their ability to break down chitin.
Although not all. The African and Asian peoples, eating insects, with the right enzymes, everything is in order. And even the Russians, who often, many and from an early age consume mushrooms of all kinds, do not feel in the stomach and intestines the discomfort of a good portion of fried mushrooms. Unlike those who eat them from time to time.
To facilitate the digestion and assimilation of the cell walls must be broken, that is, simply crush the mushrooms. From this point of view, mushroom caviar and dried mushroom powder are the best products. By the way, mushroom caviar from both boiled and dried white is obtained absolutely amazing taste.